Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum

Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum Guzmán, T. J. Baroni & Lodge

Macroscopic feat.:
  • Cap/Pileus: 13-33 mm diam, conic or campanulate, umbonate, papillate, smooth, Burnt Umber or Raw Umber or dark brownish-red, hygrophanous, drying to Tawny, with irregular blue and reddish-brown staining or with reddish fuscous hues, margin not striate or translucent-striate.
  • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed, light brown to dark reddish-brown or Dark Violaceous Brown, edges even or serrate, concolorous or whitish.
  • Stem/Stipe: 15-35 x 1.5-3 mm, equal or with a subbulbous base, smooth or pruinose, whitish to light brown or dark reddish brown, with irregular dark blue or dark reddish stains, hollow, base inserted.
  • Context: Whitish in pileus, brownish in stipe, caerulescent in all parts.
  • Odor: And taste fungoid or radish-like, or somewhat farinaceous.

Microscopic feat.:
  • Basidio/Spores: (5-) 6-7 (-9) x (3-) 4-4.5 (-5) x 3-3.5 µm (Q = 1.63), subellipsoid, both in face and side view, thin-walled, up to 0.4 µm thick, yellowish-brown, with a broad germ pore.
  • Basidia: 16-27 x 5-6.5 µm, 2- or 4-sterigmate, hyaline, ventricose, frequently with a median constriction, sterigmata 0.8-1.6 µm long.
  • Pleurocistidia: (11-) 13-20 (-22) x (3-) 4-5 (-6) µm, hyaline, ventricose or subventricose, with a short or long flexuous neck.
  • Cheilocystidia: (14-) 16-40 (-64) x (4-) 5-7 (-10) µm, hyaline, strongly versiform, subventricose or subcylindric, irregularly lobed, apex broad or acute, short or long.
  • Subhymenium: Subcellular, with hyaline elements, 2.5-8 µm wide, thin-walled, with encrusted yellowish brown pigment.
  • Trama: Hymenophoral trama regular, with cylindric or inflated, hyaline hyphae, 2-24 µm wide, with encrusted yellowish-brown pigment.
  • Epicutis: A subgelatinous layer about 50 µm thick, composed of hyaline to yellowish, thin-walled, repent cylindrical hyphae, 1.5-5.5 µm wide.
  • Hypodermium: With hyaline, slightly inflated hyphae, 3-16 µm wide, strongly encrusted with a sordid yellowish pigment Context with hyaline, cylindric or inflated hyphae, 2.5-16 µm wide. Clamp connections common.

Habitat: Gregarious on bare or mossy soil, in tropical forests. Known only from Puerto Rico.

Studied material: PUERTO RICO, Mun. Río Grande, Luquillo Mountains, La Mina Recreation Area, Caimitillo Trail, 11 Jun 1997, coll. Baroni, ledger Nieves-Rivera PR-797 (PR-4401, NY); 23 May 2000, Cantrell & Salgado (holotype PR-6167, CFMR, isotype, XAL); Baño de Oro Trail, 7 Oct 2000, Lodge & Pérez (PR-6269, UPRRP, CFMR and XAL).

Discussion: Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum belong to section Zapotecorum because of the caerulescent nature of fresh basidiomata and thin-walled subellipsoid spores. Psilocybe zapotecorum Heim emend Guzmán (Guzmán 1983) differs most noticeably from Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum because of differences in the size and form of the pleurocystidia, which are longer and broader (20-38 x 5.5-14 µm) and of different morphologies (ventricose, fusoid-clavate, submucronate or pyriform). The form of the cheilocystidia in Psilocybe zapotecorum is also quite different (ventricose, fusoid-pyriform, ventricose-rostrate or lageniform) (Guzmán 1983).
Other taxa that should be compared with Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum are Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata Guzmán and Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán. These species differ from Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum in the size of the cheilocystidia, (10-) 13-24 x (2.5-) 5-6.5 (-8) µm and 13.5-29 x 6-17 µm, respectively. Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán has two types of pleurocystidia (Guzmán 2000) and Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán emend Guzmán has broader pleurocystidia, (6-) 7-10 (-12) µm (Guzmán et al 1999, Guzmán 2000). Psilocybe halioconiae Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, García & Velázquez from Colombia (Guzmán et al 1994) differs in the cheilocystidia, which are only up to 24 µm long and rarely sublageniform, ventricose-fusoid to submoniliform.

source - [95 (6): 1175-1176]

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