Psilocybe subtropicalis

Psilocybe subtropicalis Guzmán

Macroscopic feat.:
  • Cap/Pileus: 20-26 mm in diam, subconvex to subcampanulate, subpapillate, sublubricous to dry, glabrous, even to striate toward the margin, reddish brown to brown, hygrophanous, fading to straw colour, staining dark blue to blackish when moist, almost black when dry mainly toward the margin.
  • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate or adnexed, pale brown to cinnamon brown or blackish violet, with whitish edges.
  • Stem/Stipe: 40-80 x 1-3 mm, cylindric, whitish to concolourous with the pileus, hollow, caerulescent, covered with floccose appressed white fibrils, with a subbulbous hollow base, up to 10 mm in diam in dry, without pseudorhiza. Veil absent in the adult.
  • Context: Whitish, fleshy in the pileus, subfleshy in the stipe, staining blue when cut.
  • Odor: And taste slightly farinaceous.

Microscopic feat.:
  • Basidio/Spores: (5.5-) 6.5-7 (-8) x 5-5.5 (-6) x 4-5.5 µm, subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, with a thick wall (up to 1.5 µm thick), brownish yellow, with a broad germ pore at one end and an acute short appendage at the distal end.
  • Basidia: 17.5-26.5 x 5.5-8 µm, 4-spored, clavate or subcylindric, hyaline.
  • Pleurocistidia: (12-) 13-21 (-22.5) x (4-) 5-6 (-7) µm, ventricose subacuminate or ventricose rostrate, hyaline, more or less common.
  • Cheilocystidia: (16-) 20-28 (-32)(-42) x 5-6.5 (-7) µm, ventricose or subcylindric, irregularly branching mainly at the top, hyaline, abundant.
  • Subhymenium: Formed by subglobose elements, 3-4.8 µm diam, hyaline or yellowish.
  • Trama: Trama regular, formed by hyaline thin-walled hyphae, 3.2-24 µm wide.
  • Epicutis: Subgelatinized, formed by hyaline repent hyphae 2.4-4 µm wide.
  • Hypodermium: With subglobose elements mixed with hyphae 3-12 µm in diam, hyaline or incrusted with brown yellowish pigment. Clamp connections present.

Habitat: In small groups on soil, in open places of subtropical (mesophytic) forests. Known from Guatemala and Mexico.

Studied material: GUATEMALA: approx. 25km south of Guatemala City, Santa Elena Barillas, Jun. 28, 1990, Sommerkamp 371 (Herb. Univ. San Carlos Guatemala & XAL). MEXICO: State of Veracruz, old road Xalapa to Coatepec, km 2.5, Parque Ecológico F.J. Clavijero, Oct. 6, 1986, Montoya 910 (Holotype, XAL). Huatusco to Elotepec road, Rancho San Rafael, Aug. 26, 1984, Sampieri 987 (XAL). Totutla to Xalapa road, near Axocoapan, Jun. 29, 1984, Chacón 2259; Sept. 26, 1985, Chacón 3150 (both in XAL).

Discussion: The subbulbous, hollow base of the stipe, the mycenoid habit, the branched cheilocystidia and narrow pleurocystidia are the most typical features of this caerulescent species. Psilocybe herrerae Guzmán, is a close taxon, but differs in the more branched cheilocystidia and thicker pleurocystidia (6-9 µm), and in the presence of pseudorhiza (Guzmán, 1983). Due to the form and size of the spores, this species belongs to Sect. Cordispora. Psilocybe subtropicalis is widely distributed in subtropical forests. Psilocybe mexicana grows also in the same Guatemaltecan locality.

source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 107-109]

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