Psilocybe neocaledonicum

Psilocybe neocaledonicum Guzmán & Horak

Psilocybe neocaledonica Guzmán & Horak
Hypholoma neocaledonica (Guzmán & Horak) Guzmán
Naematoloma neocaledonica (Guzmán & Horak) Guzmán

Macroscopic feat.:
  • Cap/Pileus: 8-11 mm broad, conico-papillate to subconvex, deep brown, fading to pale orange-red or stramineous when drying, not viscid, densely covered with concolorous fibrillose squamules especially towards the striate margin, occasionally also with white minute squamules from the veil along the margin.
  • Gills/Lamellae: Broadly adnate to subdecurrent, often with short tooth, deep chocolate brown to violaceous brown, edges whitish and fimbriate.
  • Stem/Stipe: 12-15 by 1-1.5 mm, cylindrical or rarely subbulbous, pale orange brown, covered with concolorous or whitish fibrils of the veil, but distinct cortina zone or anulus absent, hollow, single.
  • Context: Whitish.
  • Odor: And taste not distinctive.

Microscopic feat.:
  • Basidio/Spores: (5) 5.5-6 (-6.5) by 5.5-6 (-6.5) na 4-4.5 µm, rhombic or globose-rhombic, subelliptical in side view, membrane yellowish brown, with broad truncate germ pore.
  • Basidia: 16.5-20 by 4-6.5 µm, 4-spored, hyaline (KOH), subcylindric with slight median constriction.
  • Pleurocistidia: 22-28 by 11-14.5 µm, ventricose-rostrate, apical beak measuring 2-5.5 by 1.5-3.5 µm, hyaline or brownish (KOH), many with hyaline to yellowish refractive pigment-body of irregular shape (like chrysocystidia).
  • Cheilocystidia: 17-27 by 4-6.5 µm, polymorphous (fusiform, subventricose-rostrate or sublageniform), forming dense and sterile turf on gill edge, hyaline (KOH), rarely with hyaline apical oil drop.
  • Subhymenium: With pale orange to brown (KOH) and irregularly distributed pigment.
  • Trama: Regular, hyaline to pale orange brown (KOH), pigment irregularly encrusting the membranes (0.5-1.5 µm diam.).
  • Epicutis: Consisting of hyaline to yellowish-brownish subgelatinous parallel thin hyphae.
  • Hypodermium: Of elongate hyphae (5-15 µm diam.) with hyaline to brownish membranes (- 2 µm diam.). Clamp connections present.

Habitat: Gregarious on rotten wood, sticks and plant debris in tropical forest at about 1000 m a. s. l. Known from type locality only.

Studied material: NEW CALEDONIA, Mt. Mou, N of Paita; 22. II. 1977, leg. HORAK (Holotype ZT, 77/161; isotype ENCG).

Discussion: The pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia of this species are similar to the ones observed in Psilocybe nematolomiformis Guzmán (1977), described from tropical rain forest in Mexico, differ, however, in size and shape. Furthermore, the pileus of the Mexican species is glabrous. Psilocybe neocaledonica is also close to Agaricus (Naucoria) lonchophorus B. & Br. from Ceylon. Upon examining the type material of this species (K) by one of the authors (HORAK), only hyaline pleurocystidia have been found and chrysocystidia-like cystidia are absent. The non-cellular structure of the subcutis or hypodermium in combination with the rhombic spores are distinctly separating this New Caledonian species from taxa of the genus Naematoloma Karsten. It is possible that this new species is an hallucinogenic fungus since it has close taxonomic relationships with hallucinogenic species of the Stirps Yungensis.

source - [31: 53-54]

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