Psilocybe chuxiongensis T. Ma & K.D. Hyde
Description: Differs from related Psilocybe species mainly by the absence of annulus and hemispheric to hemispheric-convex pileus without an umbo or papilla.
Distribution: Chuxiong, Yunnan Province, China.
Habitat: Growing solitary to scattered and gregarious on cow dung or grassland where cattle have grazed in summer and early autumn.
Studied material: CHINA, Yunnan Province: Chuxiong City, Zixi Mountain, on cow dung, 25°01'05.5"N, 101°23'19.9"E, elevation 2237 m, 20 August 2009, Tao Ma CX026 (IFRD414-010, holotype). CHINA, Yunnan Province: Chuxiong, Wuding County, near a reservoir at road side in Bailu Village, on soil of grassland where cattle have grazed, 25°39'25.6"N, 102°05'30.0"E, elevation 2523 m, 24 Sep 2012, Xiao-Fei Lin WD007 (IFRD414-011)
Discussion: Etymology refers to the location Chuxiong, where the collections were found.
Psilocybe chuxiongensis is characterized by its subtropical habitat where it grows on dung. The pileus is smooth, buff-yellow to yellowish brown, hemispheric to hemispheric-convex without an umbo or papilla, lacks an annulus, while the context is yellowish both in the pileus and stipe. Bluing mainly occurs on the surface of the lamellae and stipe when bruising and drying, and mycelium are blue in culture. Microscopically Psilocybe chuxiongensis has large ellipsoid, elongate-ellipsoid to subhexagonal basidiospores 13-16 x 8-10.5 x 7.5-10 µm with slightly thick to thick walls, and hyaline, broadly clavate or ventricose pleurocystidia with an obtuse to short rostrate apex.
Following the taxonomical concept of Psilocybe proposed by Singer (Singer, 1948, 1986, Singer & Smith 1958), Psilocybe chuxiongensis belongs to sect. Caerulescentes Singer because of its surface bluing fruit body and blue mycelium in culture. In this section, it is closely related to Psilocybe cubensis as it has similar basidiospores, basidiomata, pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia, as well as the same habitat, and they can be easily differentiated from other species by the color and form of basidiomata, large spores and the subtropical habitat on dung. The relationship with Psilocybe cubensis is strongly supported by phylogenetic analyses in all three datasets; they cluster together as a sister group and can be distinguished from other members with high statistical support values.
Guzmán (1983) introduced sect. Cubensae to accommodate Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe subcubensis, which is characterized by coprophilous or subcoprophilous habitat, bluing basidiomata, subhexagonal thick-walled (0.5-1 µm) basidiospores, and a well-developed annulus. These two species are very similar and differ in the size of the basidiospores. Morphologically Psilocybe chuxiongensis can be easily separated from Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe subcubensis by the absence of annulus and the hemispheric to hemispheric-convex pileus without an umbo or papilla. Furthermore, Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe subcubensis have a white context, ovoid, broadly ellipsoid to subhexagonal or hexagonal basidiospores in face view, smaller ventricose pleurocystidia and fusoid-ventricose to lageniform to tibiiform cheilocystidia (Singer & Smith 1958 Guzmán 1983, Noordeloos 1999, Bau & Sarentoya 2009).
source - Phytotaxa [156 (4): 211-220]
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