Enteogenic Mushrooms' Species

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List of descriptions of species and strains of Psilocybe mushrooms and others

Psilocybe cubensis „Albino A+“
Psilocybe cubensis „Amazonian“
Psilocybe cubensis „Argentina“
Psilocybe cubensis „Australian“
Psilocybe cubensis „B+“
Psilocybe cubensis „Blue Meanie“
Psilocybe cubensis „Brasil“
Psilocybe cubensis „Cambodia“
Psilocybe cubensis „Cambodian Gold“
Psilocybe cubensis „Colombian“
Psilocybe cubensis „Ecuador“
Psilocybe cubensis „Ecuador Yosterizzii“
Psilocybe cubensis „F+“
Psilocybe cubensis „Golden Mammoth“
Psilocybe cubensis „Golden Teacher“
Psilocybe cubensis „Guadalajara mexico“
Psilocybe cubensis „Gulf Coast“
Psilocybe cubensis „Huautla“
Psilocybe cubensis „John Allen“
Psilocybe cubensis „Keepers Creeper“
Psilocybe cubensis „Malabar“
Psilocybe cubensis „Matias Romero“
Psilocybe cubensis „Mazatapec Mexicana“
Psilocybe cubensis „McKennaii“
Psilocybe cubensis „Mexican“
Psilocybe cubensis „Mystery Fatass“
Psilocybe cubensis „Nepal Chitwan“
Psilocybe cubensis „Orissa India“
Psilocybe cubensis „Pensacola“
Psilocybe cubensis „PESA“
Psilocybe cubensis „Penis Envy“
Psilocybe cubensis „Penis Envy 6“
Psilocybe cubensis „PF Classic“
Psilocybe cubensis „Plantasia Mystery“
Psilocybe cubensis „South American“
Psilocybe cubensis „Syzygy“
Psilocybe cubensis „Tasmanian“
Psilocybe cubensis „Teonanacatl“
Psilocybe cubensis „Thai“
Psilocybe cubensis „Thai Pink Buffalo KS“
Psilocybe cubensis „Thailand Ban Hua Thanon“
Psilocybe cubensis „Thailand Lipa Yai“
Psilocybe cubensis „Thailand Koh Samui“
Psilocybe cubensis „Thailand KS Lamai Beach“
Psilocybe cubensis „Transkei“
Psilocybe cubensis „Tulum“
Psilocybe cubensis „White Treasure Coast“
Psilocybe cubensis „Wollongong“
Psilocybe cubensis „Z-strain“
Psilocybe acutipilea
Psilocybe aeruginosa
Psilocybe allenii
Psilocybe alutacea
Psilocybe angustispora
Psilocybe antioquensis
Psilocybe aquamarina
Psilocybe argentipes
Psilocybe atlantis
Psilocybe atrobrunnea
Psilocybe aucklandiae
Psilocybe australiana
Psilocybe aztecorum
Psilocybe azurescens
Psilocybe baeocystis
Psilocybe banderillensis
Psilocybe bohemica
Psilocybe brasiliensis
Psilocybe brunneocystidiata
Psilocybe caerulea
Psilocybe caeruleoannulata
Psilocybe caerulescens
Psilocybe caerulipes
Psilocybe caribaea
Psilocybe chiapanensis
Psilocybe chuxiongensis
Psilocybe columbiana
Psilocybe coprophila
Psilocybe crobula
Psilocybe cyanescens
Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa
Psilocybe cyanofranciscana
Psilocybe dumontii
Psilocybe eucalypta
Psilocybe fagicola
Psilocybe farinacea
Psilocybe fimetaria
Psilocybe fuliginosa
Psilocybe furtadoana
Psilocybe galindoi
Psilocybe germanica
Psilocybe gallaeciae
Psilocybe graveolens
Psilocybe guatapensis
Psilocybe guilartensis
Psilocybe heimii
Psilocybe heliconiae
Psilocybe herrerae
Psilocybe hispanica
Psilocybe hoogshagenii
Psilocybe inconspicua
Psilocybe inquilina
Psilocybe jacobsii
Psilocybe kumaenorum
Psilocybe liniformans
Psilocybe luteonitens
Psilocybe magnivelaris
Psilocybe mairei
Psilocybe makarorae
Psilocybe mammillata
Psilocybe merdaria
Psilocybe meridensis
Psilocybe mescaleroensis
Psilocybe mexicana
Psilocybe mexicana „A“
Psilocybe mexicana „B“
Psilocybe microcystidiata
Psilocybe moravica
Psilocybe moseri
Psilocybe muliercula
Psilocybe naematoliformis
Psilocybe natarajanii
Psilocybe neocaledonicum
Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata
Psilocybe papuana
Psilocybe pelliculosa
Psilocybe physaloides
Psilocybe pintonii
Psilocybe plutonia
Psilocybe portoricensis
Psilocybe pseudocyanea
Psilocybe quebecensis
Psilocybe samuiensis
Psilocybe sanctorum
Psilocybe semiglobata
Psilocybe semiinconspicua
Psilocybe semilanceata
Psilocybe semilanceata „Gigant“
Psilocybe silvatica
Psilocybe serbica
Psilocybe squamosa
Psilocybe strictipes
Psilocybe stuntzii
Psilocybe subaeruginascens
Psilocybe subaeruginosa
Psilocybe subcaerulipes
Psilocybe subacutipilea
Psilocybe subcubensis
Psilocybe subfimetaria
Psilocybe subtropicalis
Psilocybe subviscida
Psilocybe subyungensis
Psilocybe tampanensis
Psilocybe tasmaniana
Psilocybe thrausta
Psilocybe uruguayensis
Psilocybe uxpanapensis
Psilocybe venenata
Psilocybe villarrealiae
Psilocybe washingtonensis
Psilocybe wassoniorum
Psilocybe wayanadensis
Psilocybe weilii
Psilocybe weraroa
Psilocybe wrightii
Psilocybe yungensis
Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum
Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea
Psilocybe zapotecorum
Panaeolus affinis
Panaeolus africanus
Panaeolus antillarum
Panaeolus bisporus
Panaeolus cambodginiensis
Panaeolus cinctulus
Panaeolus chlorocystis
Panaeolus cyanescens
Panaeolus fimicola
Panaeolus lentisporus
Panaeolus olivaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus tirunelveliensis
Panaeolus tropicalis
Panaeolus venezolanus
Conocybe cyanopus
Conocybe kuehneriana
Conocybe smithii
Galerina steglichii
Gymnopilus aeruginosus
Gymnopilus braendlei
Gymnopilus cyanopalmicola
Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus liquiritiae
Gymnopilus luteofolius
Gymnopilus luteoviridis
Gymnopilus luteus
Gymnopilus punctifolius
Gymnopilus purpuratus
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus subpurpuratus
Gymnopilus validipes
Gymnopilus viridans
Inocybe aeruginascens
Inocybe coelestium
Inocybe corydalina
Inocybe haemacta
Inocybe tricolor
Pluteus cervinus
Pluteus cyanopus
Pluteus salicinus



In the left table there are names of enteogenic mushrooms species of which descriptions are below. On the right is a list of all known Psilocybe species of which not all are psychoactive. Below in the middle, there is a list of psychoactive mushrooms; descriptions of mushrooms which are not present on this list, and are not clear to be psychoactive are labeled as probably nonactive. Those which are known to be not active are labeled nonactive.















List of known psychoactive mushroom species


Revised 1.05.2002 and updated 1.09.2007
Copyright 1998-2001 by John W. Allen
(www.mushroomjohn.org/listedspecies1.htm)

BASIDIOMYCOTINA

Agaricales

Bolbitiaceae

Agrocybe Species

  • Agrocybe farinacea Hongo
  • Conocybe Species

  • Conocybe cyanopus (G.F. Atk.) Kühner [= Pholiotina "Galera" cyanopus G.F. Atk.; Pholiotina cyanopoda (G.F. Atk.) Singer; Galerula cyanopus G.F. Atk.]
  • Conocybe kuehneriana Singer
  • Conocybe siligineoides R. Heim
  • Conocybe smithii Watling (= Galerula cyanopes Kauffman)
  • Coprinaceae

    Copelandia Species

  • Copelandia affinis Horak [= Panaeolus affinis (Horak) Ew. Gerhardt]
  • Copelandia bispora (Malençon & Bertault) Singer & R.A. Weeks [= C. papilionacea var. bispora Malençon & Bertault; Panaeolus cyanescens var. bisporus (Malençon & Bertault) G. Moreno & Esteve-Ravis.; Panaeolus bisporus (Malençon & Bertault) Ew. Gerhardt]
  • Copelandia cambodginiensis (Ola'h & R. Heim) Singer & R.A. Weeks (= Panaeolus cambodginiensis Ola'h & R. Heim)
  • Copelandia chlorocystis Singer & R.A. Weeks [= Panaeolus chlorocystis (Singer & R.W. Weeks) Ew. Gerhardt]
  • Copelandia cyanescens (Berk. & Broome) Singer [= Panaeolus cyanescens (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.; Panaeolus papilionaceus sensu Bres.) (see Copelandia westii)
  • Copelandia lentisporus (Ew. Gerhardt) Guzmán (= Panaeolus lentisporus Ew. Gerhardt)
  • Copelandia mexicana Guzmán (about Gerhardt, 1996, this a nom. excl.)
  • Copelandia tirunelveliensis Natarajan & Raman [= Panaeolus tirunelveliensis (Natarajan & Raman) Ew. Gerhard]
  • Copelandia tropicalis (Ola'h) Singer & R.A. Weeks (= Panaeolus tropicalis Ola'h)
  • Copelandia westii (Murrill) Singer (about Gerhardt, 1996, this a synonym of Copelandia cyanescens)
  • Panaeolus Species

  • Panaeolus africanus Ola'h
  • Panaeolus castaneifolius (Murrill) A.H. Sm. (= ? Panaeolus olivaceus F. H. Møller; Panaeolina castaneifolia (Murrill) Bon; Panaeolina castaneifolia (Murrill) Ew. Gerhardt, this latest seems the true name, see Gerhardt, 1996)
  • Panaeolus cinctulus (Bolton) Saccardo (1887) (=Panaeolus subbalteatus (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.) (= Panaeolus venenosus Murrill)
  • Panaeolus fimicola (Pers.) Gillet
  • Panaeolus microsporus Ola'h & Cailleux
  • Panaeolus olivaceus F.H. Møller (it is sometimes confused as a synonym of Panaeolus castaneifolius, see that)
  • Panaeolus papilionaceus (Fr.) Quél. var. papilionaceus sensu auct. non s. Ew. Gerhardt [= Panaeolus campanulatus (L. : Fr.) Quél.]
  • Panaeolus retirugis (Fr.) Quél.
  • Panaeolus venezolanus Guzmán
  • Cortinariaceae

    Galerina Species

  • Galerina steglichii Besl
  • Gymnopilus Species

  • Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer
  • Gymnopilus braendlei (Peck) Hesler
  • Gymnopilus cyanopalmicola Guzm. & Dáv
  • Gymnopilus intermedius (Singer) Singer
  • Gymnopilus lateritius (Pat.) Murrill
  • Gymnopilus liquiritiae (Fr.) P. Karst.
  • Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer
  • Gymnopilus luteoviridis Thiers
  • Gymnopilus luteus (Peck) Hesler
  • Gymnopilus punctifolius (Peck) Singer
  • Gymnopilus purpuratus (Cooke & Massee) Singer
  • Gymnopilus sapineus (Fr.) Maire (= Pholiota sapinea s. auct.)
  • Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.) A.H. Sm. [= Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.) Singer; Pholiota spectabilis Fr.; Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) P.D. Orton; Gymnopilus spectabilis var. junonia (Fr.) J.E. Lange; Pholiota junonia (Fr.) P. Karst.; Pholiota spectabilis var. junonia (Fr.) J.E. Lange] (Gymnopilus junonius seems to be the true name)
  • Gymnopilus subpurpuratus Guzmán-Davalos & Guzmán]
  • Gymnopilus validipes (Peck) Hesler
  • Gymnopilus viridans Murrill
  • Inocybe Species

  • Inocybe aeruginascens Babos
  • Inocybe coelestium Kuyper
  • Inocybe corydalina Quél. var. corydalina
  • Inocybe corydalina var. erinaceomorpha (Stangl & J. Veselsky´) Kuyper
  • Inocybe haemacta (Berk. & Cooke) Sacc.
  • Inocybe tricolor Kühner
  • Plutaceae

    Pluteus Species

    1. Pluteus atricapillus (Secr.) Singer [= Pluteus cervinus (Schaeffer) P. Kumm.] [Orton, 1986, discussed this synonymy and concluded that the true name is Pluteus cervinus because the epithet Agaricus atricapillus Batsch is debatable and uncertain. Singer (1986) introduced the name Pluteus atricapillus (Secr.) Singer, but as Secretan's work has been declared invalid, this interpretation is not consider any more]
    2. Pluteus cyanopus Quél.
    3. Pluteus glaucus Singer
    4. Pluteus nigriviridis Babos
    5. Pluteus salicinus (Pers. : Fr.) P. Kumm.
    6. Pluteus villosus (Bull.) Quél.
    7. Strophariaceae

      Hypholoma Species

    8. Hypholoma gigaspora (Natarajan & Raman) Guzmán [= Psilocybe gigaspora Natarajan & Raman; Naematoloma gigaspora (Natarajan & Raman) Guzmán]
    9. Hypholoma guzmanii (Natarajan & Raman) Guzmán [= Psilocybe guzmanii Natarajan & Raman; Naematoloma guzmanii (Natarajan & Raman) Guzmán]
    10. Hypholoma naematoliformis (Guzmán) Guzmán [= Psilocybe naematoliformis Guzmán; Naematoloma naematoliformis (Guzmán) Guzmán]
    11. Hypholoma neocaledonica (Guzmán & Horak) Guzmán [= Psilocybe neocaledonica Guzmán & Horak; Naematoloma neocaledonica (Guzmán & Horak) Guzmán]
    12. Hypholoma popperianum (Singer) Guzmán (= Naematoloma popperianum Singer)
    13. Hypholoma rhombispora (Guzmán) Guzmán (= Naematoloma rhombispora Guzmán)
    14. Psilocybe Species

    15. Psilocybe acutipilea (Speg.) Guzmán
    16. Psilocybe alutacea W. S. Chang and A. K. Mills.
    17. Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata Guzmán
    18. Psilocybe antioquensis Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, García & Velázquez
    19. Psilocybe aquamarina (Pegler) Guzmán (= Stropharia aquamarina Pegler)
    20. Psilocybe arcana Borovicka et Hlavácek sp. nov.
    21. Psilocybe argentipes K. Yokoy.
    22. Psilocybe armandii Guzmán & S.H. Pollock
    23. Psilocybe atlantis Guzmán, Hanlin & C. White
    24. Psilocybe aucklandiae Guzmán, C. C. King & Bandala (=Psilocybe aucklandii Guzmán, C.C. King & Band.-Muñoz (1991))
    25. Psilocybe australiana Guzmán & Watling
    26. Psilocybe aztecorum R. Heim emend. Guzmán var. aztecorum
    27. Psilocybe aztecorum var. bonetii (Guzmán) Guzmán (= Psilocybe bonetii Guzmán)
    28. Psilocybe azurescens Stamets & Gartz
    29. Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & A.H. Sm. emend. Guzmán
    30. Psilocybe banderillensis Guzmán & Bononi (=Psilocybe banderiliensis Guzmán)
    31. Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán emend. Guzmán, 1999
    32. Psilocybe bohemica Sebek (= Psilocybe coprinifacies s. Herink, non s. Krieglsteiner)
    33. Psilocybe brasiliensis Guzmán
    34. Psilocybe brunneocystidiata Guzmán & Horak
    35. Psilocybe cabiensis Guzmán, Torres et Ramirez-Guillen, sp. nov.
    36. Psilocybe caeruleoannulata Singer ex Guzmán
    37. Psilocybe caerulescens Murrill var. caerulescens (= Psilocybe caerulescens var. albida R. Heim; Psilocybe caerulescens var. mazatecorum R. Heim; Psilocybe mazatecorum R. Heim; Psilocybe caerulescens var. nigripes R. Heim)
    38. Psilocybe caerulescens var. ombrophila (R. Heim) Guzmán (= Psilocybe caerulescens var. mazatecorum Psilocybe ombrophila R. Heim; Psilocybe mixaeensis R. Heim)
    39. Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc.
    40. Psilocybe carbonaria Singer
    41. Psilocybe caribaea Guzmán, T. J. Baroni& Tapia, sp. nov.
    42. Psilocybe chaconii Guzmán, Escolona et Ramirez-Guillen.
    43. Psilocybe chiapanensis Guzmán
    44. Psilocybe chuxiongensis T. Ma & K.D. Hyde
    45. Psilocybe collybioides Singer & A.H. Sm.
    46. Psilocybe columbiana Guzmán
    47. Psilocybe coprinifacies (Rolland) Pouzar s. auct., non s. Herink, non s. Krieglsteiner) (see discussion)
    48. Psilocybe cordispora R. Heim
    49. Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer [= Stropharia cubensis Earle; Psilocybe cubensis var. caerulescens (Murrill) Singer & A.H. Sm.; Stropharia subcyanescens Rick; Stropharia cyanescens Murrill; Stropharia caerulescens (Pat.) Singer]
    50. Psilocybe cyanescens Wakef. (non sensu Krieglsteiner)
    51. Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa Guzmán & Stamets (=Psilocybe rhododendronensis Stamets nom. prov.)
    52. Psilocybe dumontii Singer ex Guzmán
    53. Psilocybe eucalypta Guzmán & Watling
    54. Psilocybe fagicola R. Heim & Cailleux var. fagicola
    55. Psilocybe fagicola R. Heim var. mesocystidiata Guzmán
    56. Psilocybe farinacea Rick ex Guzmán [= Psilocybe albofimbriata (Rick) Singer]
    57. Psilocybe fimetaria (P.D. Orton) Watling [= Psilocybe caesieannulata Singer; Stropharia fimetaria P.D. Orton]
    58. Psilocybe fuliginosa (Murrill) A.H. Sm.
    59. Psilocybe furtadoana Guzmán
    60. Psilocybe galindoi Guzmán (= Psilocybe galindii Guzmán)
    61. Psilocybe gallaeciae Guzmán & M.L. Castro (2003)
    62. Psilocybe germanica Gartz (2015)
    63. Psilocybe goniospora (Berk. & Broome) Singer [= Psilocybe lonchophora (Berk. Broome) Horak ex Guzmán]
    64. Psilocybe graveolens Peck
    65. Psilocybe guatapensis Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, García & Velázquez
    66. Psilocybe guilartensis Guzmán, Tapia & Nieves-Rivera
    67. Psilocybe heimii Guzmán
    68. Psilocybe heliconiae Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, García & Velázquez
    69. Psilocybe herrerae Guzmán
    70. Psilocybe hispanica Guzmán
    71. Psilocybe hoogshagenii R. Heim var. hoogshagenii (= Psilocybe caerulipes var. gastonii Singer; Psilocybe zapotecorum R. Heim s. Singer)
    72. Psilocybe hoogshagenii R. Heim var. convexa Guzmán (= Psilocybe semperviva R. Heim & Cailleux)
    73. Psilocybe inconspicua Guzmán & Horak
    74. Psilocybe indica Sathe & J.T. Daniel
    75. Psilocybe isabelae Guzmán
    76. Psilocybe jacobsii Guzmán
    77. Psilocybe jaliscana Guzmán
    78. Psilocybe karalensis sp. nov.
    79. Psilocybe kumaenorum R. Heim
    80. Psilocybe laurae Guzmán
    81. Psilocybe lazoi Singer [this is a doubtful neurotropic species, considered first by Guzmán (1983) as a synonym of Psilocybe zapotecorum, but Singer, 1986, claimed that this is a not bluing fungus independent of that of Guzmán, 1983]
    82. Psilocybe liniformans Guzmán & Bas var. liniformans
    83. Psilocybe liniformans var. americana Guzmán & Stamets
    84. Psilocybe mairei Singer [= Hypholoma cyanescens Maire; Geophila cyanescens (Maire) Kühner & Romagn.; non Psilocybe cyanescens s. Krieglsteiner]
    85. Psilocybe makarorae Johnst. & Buchanan
    86. Psilocybe mammillata (Murrill) A.H. Sm.
    87. Psilocybe mescaleroensis Guzmán, Walstad, E. Gándara & Ram.-Guill.
    88. Psilocybe meridensis Guzmán
    89. Psilocybe mesophylla Guzmán, Jacobs et Escalona, sp. nov.
    90. Psilocybe mexicana R. Heim
    91. Psilocybe microcystidiata Guzmán & Bononi
    92. Psilocybe moseri Guzmán
    93. Psilocybe muliercula Singer & A.H. Sm. (= Psilocybe wassonii R. Heim)
    94. Psilocybe natalensis Gartz, Reid, Smith & Eicker
    95. Psilocybe natarajanii Guzmán [= Psilocybe aztecorum var. bonetii (Guzmán) Guzmán s. Natarajan & Raman]
    96. Psilocybe neocaledonicum Guzmán & Horak [= Psilocybe neocaledonica]
    97. Psilocybe neoxalapensis Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & Halling (2009)
    98. Psilocybe oaxacana Guzmán, Escalona et Jacobs, sp. nov.
    99. Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata Guzmán et Gaines.
    100. Psilocybe papuana Guzmán & Horak
    101. Psilocybe paulensis (Guzmán & Bononi) Guzmán (= Psilocybe banderiliensis var. paulensis Guzmán & Bononi)
    102. Psilocybe pelliculosa (A.H. Sm.) Singer & A.H. Sm.
    103. Psilocybe pericystis Singer
    104. Psilocybe pileocystidiata Guzmán et Ramirez-Guillen.
    105. Psilocybe pintonii Guzmán
    106. Psilocybe pleurocystidiosa Guzmán
    107. Psilocybe plutonia (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc.
    108. Psilocybe portoricensis Guzmán, Tapia & Nieves-Rivera
    109. Psilocybe pseudoaztecorum Natarajan & Raman (= Psilocybe aztecorum var. aztecorum sensu Natarajan & Raman; Psilocybe subaztecorum Guzmán, 1995)
    110. Psilocybe puberula Bas & Noordel.
    111. Psilocybe quebecensis Ola'h & R. Heim
    112. Psilocybe ramulosa (Guzmán & Bononi) Guzmán (= Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosum Guzmán & Bononi)
    113. Psilocybe rickii Guzmán & Cortez
    114. Psilocybe rostrata (Petch) Pegler
    115. Psilocybe rzedowskii Guzmán
    116. Psilocybe samuiensis Guzmán, Bandala & Allen
    117. Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán
    118. Psilocybe schultesii Guzmán & S.H. Pollock
    119. Psilocybe semiinconspicua Guzmán & J. M. Trappe
    120. Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. : Secr.) P. Kumm. [= Psilocybe semilanceata var. caerulescens (Cooke) Sacc.: Psilocybe cookei Singer; non Psilocybe callosa (Fr. : Fr.) Quél., which is Psilocybe strictipes Singer & A.H. Sm.]
    121. Psilocybe septentrionalis (Guzmán) Guzmán (= Psilocybe subaeriginascens Höhn. var. septentrionalis Guzmán)
    122. Psilocybe serbica Moser & Horak (non ss. Krieglsteiner); (Psilocybe arcana Borov. & Hlavácek (2001); Psilocybe moravica Borov. (2003))
    123. Psilocybe sierrae Singer (= Psilocybe subfimetaria Guzmán & A.H. Sm.)
    124. Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & A.H. Sm.
    125. Psilocybe singerii Guzmán
    126. Psilocybe singularis Guzmán, Escalona et Jacobs, (2004).
    127. Psilocybe strictipes Singer & A.H. Sm. [= Psilocybe callosa (Fr. : Fr.) Quél. s. Guzmán, 1983; Psilocybe semilanceata var. obtusa Bon; Psilocybe semilanceata var. microspora Singer ?]
    128. Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & Ott
    129. Psilocybe subacutipilea Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, García & Velázquez
    130. Psilocybe subaeruginascens Höhn. var. subaeruginascens [= Psilocybe aerugineo-maculans (Höhn.) Singer & A.H. Sm.]
    131. Psilocybe subaeruginosa Cleland
    132. Psilocybe subcaerulipes Hongo
    133. Psilocybe subcubensis Guzmán
    134. Psilocybe subhoogshagenii Guzmán, Torres et Ramirex-Guillen, (2004)
    135. Psilocybe subpsilocybioides Guzmán, Lodge & S.A. Cantrell
    136. Psilocybe subtropicalis Guzmán
    137. Psilocybe subyungensis Guzmán
    138. Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán
    139. Psilocybe tampanensis Guzmán & S.H. Pollock
    140. Psilocybe tasmaniana Guzmán & Watling
    141. Psilocybe uruguayensis Singer ex Guzmán
    142. Psilocybe uxpanapensis Guzmán
    143. Psilocybe venenata (S. Imai) Imaz. & Hongo (= Psilocybe fasciata Hongo; Stropharia caerulescens S. Imai)
    144. Psilocybe veraecrucis Guzmán & Pérez-Ortiz
    145. Psilocybe villarrealiae Guzmán (=Psilocybe villarrealii Guzmán)
    146. Psilocybe wassoniorum Guzmán & S.H. Pollock
    147. Psilocybe wayanadensis K.A. Thomas, Manim. & Guzmán (2002)
    148. Psilocybe weraroa Borov., Oborník & Noordel. (2011); [= Secotium novae-zelandiae G.Cunn. (1924); Weraroa novae-zelandiae (G.Cunn.) Singer (1958)]
    149. Psilocybe weilii Guzmán, Tapia & Stamets
    150. Psilocybe weldenii Guzmán
    151. Psilocybe wrightii Guzmán
    152. Psilocybe xalapensis Guzmán & A. López
    153. Psilocybe yungensis Singer & A.H. Sm. (= Psilocybe yungensis var. diconica Singer & A.H. Sm.; Psilocybe yungensis var. acutopapillata Singer & A.H. Sm.; Psilocybe isaurii Singer; Psilocybe acutissima R. Heim)
    154. Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum Guzmán, Baroni & Lodge (2003)
    155. Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea Guzmán, Ramirex-Guillen and T.P. Tapia (2003)
    156. Psilocybe zapotecorum R. Heim emend. Guzmán (= Psilocybe aggericola Singer & A.H. Sm.)

    157. New ones or changes in above (original) list:

    158. ADDED: Gymnopilus cyanopalmicola Guzm. & Dáv
    159. ADDED: Gymnopilus punctifolius (Peck) Singer
    160. ADDED: Panaeolus fimicola (Pers.) Gillet
    161. ADDED: Panaeolus venezolanus Guzmán
    162. ADDED: Psilocybe allenii Borov., Rockefeller & P.G.Werner (2012)
    163. ADDED: Psilocybe atlantis Guzmán, Hanlin & C. White
    164. ADDED: Psilocybe chuxiongensis T. Ma & K.D. Hyde
    165. ADDED: Psilocybe cyanofranciscana nom. prov.
    166. ADDED: Psilocybe germanica Gartz (2015)
    167. ADDED: Psilocybe mescaleroensis Guzmán, Walstad, E. Gándara & Ram.-Guill.
    168. ADDED: Psilocybe microcystidiata Guzmán & Bononi
    169. ADDED: Psilocybe neocaledonicum Guzmán & Horak
    170. ADDED: Psilocybe neoxalapensis Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & Halling (2009)
    171. ADDED: Psilocybe rickii Guzmán & Cortez
    172. ADDED: Psilocybe subpsilocybioides Guzmán, Lodge & S.A. Cantrell
    173. ADDED: Psilocybe weraroa Borov., Oborník & Noordel. (2011); [= Secotium novae-zelandiae G.Cunn. (1924); Weraroa novae-zelandiae (G.Cunn.) Singer (1958)]
    174. INSTEAD: Psilocybe aucklandii Guzmán, C.C. King & Bandala
      THERE IS: Psilocybe aucklandiae Guzmán, C. C. King & Bandala (=Psilocybe aucklandii Guzmán, C.C. King & Band.-Muñoz (1991))
    175. INSTEAD: Psilocybe banderiliensis Guzmán
      THERE IS: Psilocybe banderillensis Guzmán & Bononi (=Psilocybe banderiliensis Guzmán)
    176. INSTEAD: Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa Guzmán
      THERE IS: Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa Guzmán & Stamets (=Psilocybe rhododendronensis Stamets nom. prov.)
    177. INSTEAD: Psilocybe serbica Moser & Horak (non ss. Krieglsteiner)
      THERE IS: Psilocybe serbica Moser & Horak (non ss. Krieglsteiner); (=Psilocybe arcana Borov. & Hlavácek (2001); Psilocybe moravica Borov. (2003))
    178. INSTEAD: Psilocybe villarrealii Guzmán
      THERE IS: Psilocybe villarrealiae Guzmán (=Psilocybe villarrealii Guzmán)
    179. INSTEAD: Panaeolus subbalteatus (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. (= Panaeolus venenosus Murrill)
      THERE IS: Panaeolus cinctulus (Bolton) Saccardo (1887) (=Panaeolus subbalteatus (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.) (= Panaeolus venenosus Murrill)

    Psilocybe mexicana „A“
    Psilocybe mexicana „B“



    List of known species of Psilocybe mushrooms

    1. Psilocybe acadiensis A.H. Sm. (1946); Strophariaceae
    2. Psilocybe acutipilea (Speg.) Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    3. Psilocybe acutissima R. Heim (1959); Strophariaceae (a.k.a. Psilocybe yungensis)
    4. Psilocybe aequatoriae Singer (1977); Strophariaceae
    5. Psilocybe aerugineomaculans (Höhn.) Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae (a.k.a. Psilocybe subaeruginascens)
    6. Psilocybe aeruginosa (Curtis) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia aeruginosa), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    7. Psilocybe agariella G.F. Atk.; Strophariaceae
    8. Psilocybe aggericola Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    9. Psilocybe aggregata Cleland & Cheel (1918); Strophariaceae
    10. Psilocybe agnata (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    11. Psilocybe agraria (Fr.) P. Karst. (1887); Strophariaceae
    12. Psilocybe agrariella G.F. Atk.; Strophariaceae
    13. Psilocybe agrariella var. agrariella G.F. Atk.; Strophariaceae
    14. Psilocybe agrariella var. vaccinii Charles (1931); Strophariaceae
    15. Psilocybe alachuana Murrill (1942); Strophariaceae
    16. Psilocybe albobrunnea Lutz{?} (1907); Strophariaceae
    17. Psilocybe albobrunnea Beeli (1938); Strophariaceae
    18. Psilocybe albofimbriata (Rick) Singer (1986); Strophariaceae
    19. Psilocybe albonitens (Fr.) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia albonitens), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    20. Psilocybe alboquadrata Berk.; Strophariaceae
    21. Psilocybe aleuriata R. Heim & L. Remy (1926); Strophariaceae
    22. Psilocybe allenii Borovička J., Rockefeller A., Werner P.G. (2012); Strophariaceae
    23. Psilocybe alnetorum (Singer) Singer (1960); Strophariaceae
    24. Psilocybe alpestris Singer (1989); Strophariaceae
    25. Psilocybe alpina Guzmán, Tapia & Nav.-Ros. (1999); Strophariaceae
    26. Psilocybe alutacea W. S. Chang and A. K. Mills.
    27. Psilocybe ammophila (Mont.) Gillet (1878), (= Psathyrella ammophila), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    28. Psilocybe ammophila var. ammophila (Mont.) Gillet (1878); Strophariaceae
    29. Psilocybe ammophila var. ecaudata Maire; Strophariaceae
    30. Psilocybe andina Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    31. Psilocybe anellariiformis (Murrill) Singer (1973); Strophariaceae
    32. Psilocybe angulata (Pers.) Singer (1961), (= Marasmiellus vaillantii), [RSD]; Marasmiaceae
    33. Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    34. Psilocybe angustispora A.H. Sm. (1946); Strophariaceae
    35. Psilocybe antillarum (Fr.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    36. Psilocybe antillarum var. antillarum (Fr.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    37. Psilocybe antillarum var. praelonga Fr. (1851); Strophariaceae
    38. Psilocybe antioquiensis Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez (1994); Strophariaceae
    39. Psilocybe apelliculosa P.D. Orton (1969), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    40. Psilocybe appendiculata Rick (1920); Strophariaceae
    41. Psilocybe aquamarina (Pegler) Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    42. Psilocybe araucana Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    43. Psilocybe arenulina Peck; Strophariaceae
    44. Psilocybe areolata (Klotzsch) Sacc. (1887), (= Lacrymaria lacrymabunda), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    45. Psilocybe argentina (Speg.) Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    46. Psilocybe argentipes K. Yokoy. (1976); Strophariaceae
    47. Psilocybe armandii Guzmán & S.H. Pollock (1979); Strophariaceae
    48. Psilocybe asperospora Cleland (1934); Strophariaceae
    49. Psilocybe atlantis Guzmán, Hanlin & C. White (2003); Strophariaceae
    50. Psilocybe atomatoides (Peck) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    51. Psilocybe atrobrunnea sensu Guzmán, (= Psilocybe turficola), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    52. Psilocybe atrobrunnea (Lasch) Gillet (1878); Strophariaceae
    53. Psilocybe atrorufa sensu auct., (= Psilocybe montana), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    54. Psilocybe atrorufa (Schaeff.) Quél. (1872); Strophariaceae
    55. Psilocybe atrorufa f. atrorufa (Schaeff.) Quél. (1872); Strophariaceae
    56. Psilocybe atrorufa f. brevipes Kill. (1939); Strophariaceae
    57. Psilocybe atrorufa f. longipes Kill. (1939); Strophariaceae
    58. Psilocybe aucklandii Guzmán, C.C. King & Band.-Muñoz (1991); Strophariaceae
    59. Psilocybe aurantiaca (Cooke) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia aurantiaca), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    60. Psilocybe australiana Guzmán & Watling (1978); Strophariaceae
    61. Psilocybe aztecorum R. Heim (1957), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    62. Psilocybe aztecorum var. aztecorum R. Heim (1957); Strophariaceae
    63. Psilocybe aztecorum var. bonetii (Guzmán) Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    64. Psilocybe azurescens Stamets & Gartz, [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    65. Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    66. Psilocybe banderillensis Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    67. Psilocybe banderillensis var. banderillensis Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    68. Psilocybe banderillensis var. paulensis Guzmán & Bononi (1984); Strophariaceae
    69. Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán (1981); Strophariaceae
    70. Psilocybe blattariopsis (Speg.) Singer (1951); Strophariaceae
    71. Psilocybe bohemica Šebek (1983), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    72. Psilocybe bolivarii Guzmán (1968); Strophariaceae
    73. Psilocybe bonetii Guzmán (1970); Strophariaceae
    74. Psilocybe borealis Guzmán (1977); Strophariaceae
    75. Psilocybe brasiliensis Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    76. Psilocybe brunneocystidiata Guzmán & E. Horak (1979); Strophariaceae
    77. Psilocybe bulbosa (Peck) A.H. Sm. (1948); Strophariaceae
    78. Psilocybe bullacea sensu auct. mult., (= Psilocybe subviscida var. velata), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    79. Psilocybe bullacea (Bull.) P. Kumm. (1871); Strophariaceae
    80. Psilocybe cabiensis Guzmán, M. Torres & Ram.-Guill. (2004); Strophariaceae
    81. Psilocybe caerulea (Kreisel) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia caerulea), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    82. Psilocybe caeruleoannulata Singer ex Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    83. Psilocybe caerulescens Murrill (1923), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    84. Psilocybe caerulescens var. albida R. Heim (1973); Strophariaceae
    85. Psilocybe caerulescens var. caerulescens Murrill (1923); Strophariaceae
    86. Psilocybe caerulescens var. mazatecorum R. Heim (1957); Strophariaceae
    87. Psilocybe caerulescens var. nigripes R. Heim (1957); Strophariaceae
    88. Psilocybe caerulescens var. ombrophila R. Heim; Strophariaceae
    89. Psilocybe caerulescens var. ombrophila (R. Heim) Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    90. Psilocybe caerulipes Peck; Strophariaceae
    91. Psilocybe caerulipes var. caerulipes Peck; Strophariaceae
    92. Psilocybe caerulipes var. gastonii Singer (1959); Strophariaceae
    93. Psilocybe caesioannulata Singer (1965); Strophariaceae
    94. Psilocybe caespiticia Berk.; Strophariaceae
    95. Psilocybe caespitosa Murrill (1923); Strophariaceae
    96. Psilocybe californica Earle; Strophariaceae
    97. Psilocybe callosa sensu auct., (= Psilocybe strictipes), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    98. Psilocybe callosa (Fr.) Gillet (1878); Strophariaceae
    99. Psilocybe calongei G. Moreno & Esteve-Rav. (1988); Strophariaceae
    100. Psilocybe camptopoda Peck; Strophariaceae
    101. Psilocybe candidipes Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae (a.k.a. Psilocybe zapotecorum)
    102. Psilocybe canificans (Cooke) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    103. Psilocybe canobrunnea (Batsch) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    104. Psilocybe canorubra Berk. & Broome; Strophariaceae
    105. Psilocybe capnoides (Fr.) Noordel. (1995), (= Hypholoma capnoides), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    106. Psilocybe carbonaria Singer (1965); Strophariaceae
    107. Psilocybe caribaea Guzmán, T.J. Baroni & Tapia (2003); Strophariaceae
    108. Psilocybe caricicola P.D. Orton (1969), (= Melanotus phillipsii), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    109. Psilocybe castaneicolor Murrill (1923); Strophariaceae
    110. Psilocybe castaneifolia Murrill (1923); Strophariaceae
    111. Psilocybe castanella Peck; Strophariaceae
    112. Psilocybe castanella var. castanella Peck; Strophariaceae
    113. Psilocybe castanella var. subhyperella (Singer) Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    114. Psilocybe catervata Massee (1892); Strophariaceae
    115. Psilocybe ceres (Cooke & Massee) Sacc. (1891); Strophariaceae
    116. Psilocybe cernua (Vahl) Quél. (1872), (= Psathyrella cernua), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    117. Psilocybe cernua var. areolata (Klotzsch) Bres. (1931), (= Lacrymaria lacrymabunda), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    118. Psilocybe cernua var. cernua (Vahl) Quél. (1872); Strophariaceae
    119. Psilocybe chaconii Guzmán, Escalona & Ram.-Guill. (2004); Strophariaceae
    120. Psilocybe chiapanensis Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    121. Psilocybe chilensis Singer (1965); Strophariaceae
    122. Psilocybe chionophila Lamoure (1977), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    123. Psilocybe chondroderma (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. (1887), (= Psathyrella chondroderma), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    124. Psilocybe chrysocystidiata Singer (1973); Strophariaceae
    125. Psilocybe chuxiongensis T. Ma & K.D. Hyde
    126. Psilocybe citrina Massee; Strophariaceae
    127. Psilocybe clavata Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    128. Psilocybe clivensis (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. (1887), (= Psathyrella clivensis), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    129. Psilocybe cokeri Murrill (1923); Strophariaceae
    130. Psilocybe cokeriana A.H. Sm. & Hesler (1946); Strophariaceae
    131. Psilocybe collybioides Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    132. Psilocybe columbiana Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    133. Psilocybe compta (Fr.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    134. Psilocybe comta (Fr.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    135. Psilocybe conissans (Peck) Peck; Strophariaceae
    136. Psilocybe cookei Singer (1973); Strophariaceae
    137. Psilocybe coprophila (Bull.) P. Kumm. (1871), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    138. Psilocybe coprophila var. coprophila (Bull.) P. Kumm. (1871); Strophariaceae
    139. Psilocybe coprophila var. vomitiicola Kill. (1939); Strophariaceae
    140. Psilocybe cordispora R. Heim (1959); Strophariaceae
    141. Psilocybe cordobensis Singer (1973); Strophariaceae
    142. Psilocybe corneipes (Fr.) P. Karst., (= Mythicomyces corneipes), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    143. Psilocybe coronilla (Bull.) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia coronilla), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    144. Psilocybe crobula (Fr.) Singer (1962), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    145. Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer (1948), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    146. Psilocybe cubensis var. caerulescens (Pat.) Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    147. Psilocybe cubensis var. cubensis (Earle) Singer (1948); Strophariaceae
    148. Psilocybe cubensis var. cyanescens (Murrill) Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    149. Psilocybe cyanescens Wakef. (1946), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    150. Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa Guzmán & Stamets (1980); Strophariaceae
    151. Psilocybe cyanofranciscana nom. prov.
    152. Psilocybe cylindrispora A. Pearson (1950); Strophariaceae
    153. Psilocybe cystidiosa Peck; Strophariaceae
    154. Psilocybe delita (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    155. Psilocybe desertorum Velen. (1921); Strophariaceae
    156. Psilocybe dichroa (Pers.) P. Karst.; Strophariaceae
    157. Psilocybe dichroa sensu J.E. Lange (1938), (= Hypholoma subericaeum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    158. Psilocybe dichroa var. dichroa (Pers.) P. Karst.; Strophariaceae
    159. Psilocybe dichroa var. tenuior P. Karst.; Strophariaceae
    160. Psilocybe dichroma (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    161. Psilocybe discordabilis (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1895); Strophariaceae
    162. Psilocybe discordans (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    163. Psilocybe dorsipora (Esteve-Rav. & Barrasa) Noordel. (1999); Strophariaceae
    164. Psilocybe dumontii Singer ex Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    165. Psilocybe dunicola (Speg.) Singer (1968); Strophariaceae
    166. Psilocybe ecbola (Fr.) Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    167. Psilocybe echinata Cleland (1934); Strophariaceae
    168. Psilocybe egonii Guzmán & T.J. Baroni (2003); Strophariaceae
    169. Psilocybe elongata (Pers.) J.E. Lange (1936), (= Hypholoma elongatum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    170. Psilocybe elongatipes Peck (1875), (= Hypholoma elongatipes), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    171. Psilocybe ericaea (Pers.) Quél. (1873), (= Hypholoma ericaeum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    172. Psilocybe ericaea var. dichroa P. Karst. (1879); Strophariaceae
    173. Psilocybe ericaea var. ericaea (Pers.) Quél. (1873); Strophariaceae
    174. Psilocybe ericaeoides (P.D. Orton) Noordel. (1995), (= Hypholoma ericaeoides), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    175. Psilocybe eucalypta Guzmán & Watling (1978); Strophariaceae
    176. Psilocybe exerrans (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    177. Psilocybe fagicola R. Heim & Cailleux (1959); Strophariaceae
    178. Psilocybe fagicola var. fagicola R. Heim & Cailleux (1959); Strophariaceae
    179. Psilocybe fagicola var. mesocystidiata Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    180. Psilocybe farinacea Rick ex Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    181. Psilocybe fasciata Hongo (1957); Strophariaceae
    182. Psilocybe fasciculare (Huds.) Kühner (1980), (= Hypholoma fasciculare), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    183. Psilocybe fasciculare var. fasciculare (Huds.) Kühner (1980); Strophariaceae
    184. Psilocybe fasciculare var. pusilla (J.E. Lange) Noordel. (1995), (= Hypholoma fasciculare var. pusillum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    185. Psilocybe fasciculata Hongo; Strophariaceae
    186. Psilocybe fatua (Fr.) Cout. (1934), (= Psathyrella fatua), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    187. Psilocybe fatua f. fatua (Fr.) Cout. (1934); Strophariaceae
    188. Psilocybe fatua f. minor Cout. (1934); Strophariaceae
    189. Psilocybe februaria Singer (1989); Strophariaceae
    190. Psilocybe ferrugineolateritia Voglino; Strophariaceae
    191. Psilocybe fimetaria (P.D. Orton) Watling (1967), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    192. Psilocybe fimicola Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    193. Psilocybe flammuliformis Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    194. Psilocybe floccipes Kill. (1939); Strophariaceae
    195. Psilocybe flocculosa Bas & Noordel. (1996); Strophariaceae
    196. Psilocybe floridana Murrill (1945); Strophariaceae
    197. Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers.) Quél. (1872), (= Panaeolina foenisecii), [RSD]; Bolbitiaceae
    198. Psilocybe fortunata Cooke; Strophariaceae
    199. Psilocybe fuegiana (E. Horak) Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    200. Psilocybe fuliginosa (Murrill) A.H. Sm. (1948); Strophariaceae
    201. Psilocybe furtadoana Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    202. Psilocybe fuscifolia Peck; Strophariaceae
    203. Psilocybe fuscofulva Peck; Strophariaceae
    204. Psilocybe galindoi Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    205. Psilocybe gallaeciae Guzmán & M.L. Castro (2003)
    206. Psilocybe germanica Gartz (2015)
    207. Psilocybe gigaspora Natarajan & Raman (1983); Strophariaceae
    208. Psilocybe gilletii P. Karst.; Strophariaceae
    209. Psilocybe glutinosa Arnolds (1982); Strophariaceae
    210. Psilocybe goniospora (Berk. & Broome) Singer (1962); Strophariaceae
    211. Psilocybe graminicola (P.D. Orton) P.D. Orton (1969), (= Psilocybe subviscida var. velata), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    212. Psilocybe granulata Naveau (1923); Strophariaceae
    213. Psilocybe graveolens Peck; Strophariaceae
    214. Psilocybe griseobadia (Pat.) Zhu L. Yang (2000); Strophariaceae
    215. Psilocybe guatapensis Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez (1994); Strophariaceae
    216. Psilocybe guilartensis Guzmán, F. Tapia & Nieves-Riv. (1997); Strophariaceae
    217. Psilocybe guzmanii Natarajan & Raman (1983); Strophariaceae
    218. Psilocybe halophila (Pacioni) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia halophila), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    219. Psilocybe hebes (Fr.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    220. Psilocybe heimii Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    221. Psilocybe heliconiae Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez (1994); Strophariaceae
    222. Psilocybe henningsii Jungner{?}; Strophariaceae
    223. Psilocybe hepatochrous (Berk.) M. Lago & M.L. Castro 2004
    224. Psilocybe herrerae Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    225. Psilocybe heterosticha (Fr.) Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    226. Psilocybe hispanica Guzmán (2000); Strophariaceae
    227. Psilocybe hoogshagenii R. Heim (1958); Strophariaceae
    228. Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. convexa Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    229. Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. hoogshagenii R. Heim (1958); Strophariaceae
    230. Psilocybe horakii Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    231. Psilocybe horizontalis (Bull.) Vellinga & Noordel. (1995), (= Melanotus horizontalis), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    232. Psilocybe hornemannii (Fr.) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia hornemannii), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    233. Psilocybe hygrophila Fr.; Strophariaceae
    234. Psilocybe inconspicua Guzmán & E. Horak (1979); Strophariaceae
    235. Psilocybe indica Sathe & J.T. Daniel (1981); Strophariaceae
    236. Psilocybe inquilina (Fr.) Bres. (1931), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    237. Psilocybe inquilina var. crobula (Fr.) Høil. (1978), (= Psilocybe crobula), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    238. Psilocybe inquilina var. inquilina (Fr.) Bres. (1931); Strophariaceae
    239. Psilocybe insiliens (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    240. Psilocybe interjungens (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    241. Psilocybe inuncta (Fr.) Kühner (1980), (= Stropharia inuncta), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    242. Psilocybe inuncta (Fr.) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia inuncta), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    243. Psilocybe iodoformica Pat. (1924); Strophariaceae
    244. Psilocybe iodoformica Pat. (1928); Strophariaceae
    245. Psilocybe isabelae Guzmán (1999); Strophariaceae
    246. Psilocybe isauri Singer (1959); Strophariaceae (a.k.a. Psilocybe yungensis)
    247. Psilocybe jacobsii Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    248. Psilocybe jaliscana Guzmán (2000); Strophariaceae
    249. Psilocybe jujuyensis Singer (1973); Strophariaceae
    250. Psilocybe karalensis sp. nov.
    251. Psilocybe kashmeriensis S.P. Abraham (1995); Strophariaceae
    252. Psilocybe keralensis K.A. Thomas, Manim. & Guzmán (2002); Strophariaceae
    253. Psilocybe kolya Grgur. (1997); Strophariaceae
    254. Psilocybe korra Grgur. (1997); Strophariaceae
    255. Psilocybe kramburkicola Grgur. (1997); Strophariaceae
    256. Psilocybe kumaenorum R. Heim (1967); Strophariaceae
    257. Psilocybe laeticolor (F.H. Møller) Noordel. (1995), (= Hypholoma laeticolor), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    258. Psilocybe laetissima Hauskn. & Singer (1986); Strophariaceae
    259. Psilocybe larga Kauffman (1918); Strophariaceae
    260. Psilocybe lateritia (Schaeff.) A.H. Sm. (1948), (= Hypholoma lateritium), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    261. Psilocybe laticystis Guzmán & A.H. Sm. (1978); Strophariaceae
    262. Psilocybe latispora Murrill (1923); Strophariaceae
    263. Psilocybe lazoi Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    264. Psilocybe leechii A.H. Sm. (1946); Strophariaceae
    265. Psilocybe limicola (Peck) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    266. Psilocybe limophila Peck; Strophariaceae
    267. Psilocybe liniformans Guzmán & Bas (1977); Strophariaceae
    268. Psilocybe liniformans var. americana Guzmán & Stamets (1980); Strophariaceae
    269. Psilocybe liniformans var. liniformans Guzmán & Bas (1977); Strophariaceae
    270. Psilocybe lonchophora (Berk. & Broome) E. Horak (1983); Strophariaceae
    271. Psilocybe longinqua Singer (1960); Strophariaceae
    272. Psilocybe longispora Murrill (1945); Strophariaceae
    273. Psilocybe luteonitens (Vahl) Park.-Rhodes (1951), (= Stropharia luteonitens), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    274. Psilocybe lysiophylla Fr.; Strophariaceae
    275. Psilocybe macquariensis (Singer) E. Horak (1982); Strophariaceae
    276. Psilocybe macrocystis
    277. Psilocybe magica Svrček (1989), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    278. Psilocybe magnivelaris (Peck) Høil. (1991); Strophariaceae
    279. Psilocybe magnivelaris (Peck) Noordel. (1995); Strophariaceae
    280. Psilocybe mairei Singer (1973); Strophariaceae
    281. Psilocybe makarorae P.R. Johnst. & P.K. Buchanan (1995); Strophariaceae
    282. Psilocybe mammillata (Murrill) A.H. Sm. (1948); Strophariaceae
    283. Psilocybe marginata (Pers.) Noordel. (1995), (= Galerina marginata), [RSD]; Cortinariaceae
    284. Psilocybe marthae Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    285. Psilocybe maxima Velen. (1921); Strophariaceae
    286. Psilocybe melanosperma (Bull.) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia melanosperma), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    287. Psilocybe merdaria (Fr.) Ricken (1912), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    288. Psilocybe merdaria f. macrospora (F.H. Møller) Singer & M.M. Moser (1965); Strophariaceae
    289. Psilocybe merdaria f. merdaria (Fr.) Ricken (1912); Strophariaceae
    290. Psilocybe merdaria var. macrospora (F.H. Møller) Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    291. Psilocybe merdaria var. merdaria (Fr.) Ricken (1912); Strophariaceae
    292. Psilocybe merdicola Huijsman (1961), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    293. Psilocybe meridensis Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    294. Psilocybe mescaleroensis Guzmán, Walstad, E. Gándara & Ram.-Guill.
    295. Psilocybe mesophylla Guzmán, J.Q. Jacobs & Escalona (2004); Strophariaceae
    296. Psilocybe mesospora Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    297. Psilocybe mexicana R. Heim (1957), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    298. Psilocybe microcystidiata Guzmán & Bononi (1984); Strophariaceae
    299. Psilocybe micropora Noordel. & Verduin (1999); Strophariaceae
    300. Psilocybe microsporum Speg.; Strophariaceae
    301. Psilocybe mixaeensis R. Heim (1958); Strophariaceae
    302. Psilocybe modesta (Peck) A.H. Sm. (1948); Strophariaceae
    303. Psilocybe moelleri Guzmán (1978), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    304. Psilocybe montana (Pers.) P. Kumm. (1871), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    305. Psilocybe montana f. montana (Pers.) P. Kumm. (1871); Strophariaceae
    306. Psilocybe montana f. plana Arnolds (1982); Strophariaceae
    307. Psilocybe montana var. macrospora Noordel. & Verduin (1999); Strophariaceae
    308. Psilocybe montana var. montana (Pers.) P. Kumm. (1871); Strophariaceae
    309. Psilocybe moseri Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    310. Psilocybe muliercula Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae (a.k.a. Psilocybe wassonii)
    311. Psilocybe murcida (Fr.) P. Karst. (1879), (= Psathyrella murcida), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    312. Psilocybe musci Cleland & Cheel (1918); Strophariaceae
    313. Psilocybe muscorum (P.D. Orton) M.M. Moser (1967), (= Psilocybe inquilina), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    314. Psilocybe mutabilis P. Karst.; Strophariaceae
    315. Psilocybe mutans McKnight (1971); Strophariaceae
    316. Psilocybe naematoliformis Guzmán (1979); Strophariaceae
    317. Psilocybe natarajanii Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    318. Psilocybe nemophila (Fr.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    319. Psilocybe neocaledonica Guzmán & E. Horak (1979); Strophariaceae
    320. Psilocybe neocaledonicum Guzmán & Horak
    321. Psilocybe neoxalapensis Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & Halling (2009)
    322. Psilocybe nigrella Peck; Strophariaceae
    323. Psilocybe nothofagensis Guzmán & E. Horak (1979); Strophariaceae
    324. Psilocybe novae-zelandiae Guzmán & E. Horak (1979), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    325. Psilocybe nuciseda (Fr.) Massee (1902); Strophariaceae
    326. Psilocybe oaxacana Guzmán, Escalona & J.Q. Jacobs (2004); Strophariaceae
    327. Psilocybe obscura Peck; Strophariaceae
    328. Psilocybe obtusissima Kauffman & A.H. Sm. (1933); Strophariaceae
    329. Psilocybe ochraeceps Kauffman (1925); Strophariaceae
    330. Psilocybe ochreata (Berk. & Broome) E. Horak (1983); Strophariaceae
    331. Psilocybe oedipus Massee (1899); Strophariaceae
    332. Psilocybe olivaceotincta Kauffman (1925); Strophariaceae
    333. Psilocybe omiumsanctorum Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    334. Psilocybe oregonensis Guzmán (2000); Strophariaceae
    335. Psilocybe orizabensis Murrill; Strophariaceae
    336. Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata Guzmán et Gaines
    337. Psilocybe pallidispora (Murrill) A.H. Sm. (1948); Strophariaceae
    338. Psilocybe palmigena (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    339. Psilocybe panaeoliformis Murrill (1923); Strophariaceae
    340. Psilocybe papuana Guzmán & E. Horak (1979); Strophariaceae
    341. Psilocybe papyracea (Pers.) J.E. Lange (1936), (= Psathyrella cernua), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    342. Psilocybe particularis (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    343. Psilocybe parviducta (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1895); Strophariaceae
    344. Psilocybe paulensis (Guzmán & Bononi) Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    345. Psilocybe paupera Singer (1955); Strophariaceae
    346. Psilocybe pegleriana Guzmán (2000); Strophariaceae
    347. Psilocybe peladae Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    348. Psilocybe pelliculosa (A.H. Sm.) Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    349. Psilocybe percevalii (Berk. & Broome) P.D. Orton (1969), (= Stropharia percevalii), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    350. Psilocybe pericystis Singer (1989); Strophariaceae
    351. Psilocybe pertinax (Fr.) P. Karst.; Strophariaceae
    352. Psilocybe peruviana Singer (1960); Strophariaceae
    353. Psilocybe phillipsii (Berk. & Broome) Vellinga & Noordel. (1995), (= Melanotus phillipsii), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    354. Psilocybe phillipsii f. megaspora Vellinga (1999); Strophariaceae
    355. Psilocybe phillipsii f. phillipsii (Berk. & Broome) Vellinga & Noordel. (1995); Strophariaceae
    356. Psilocybe phyllogena (Peck) Peck (1912), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    357. Psilocybe physaloides (Bull.) Quél. (1872), (= Psilocybe montana), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    358. Psilocybe physaloides var. physaloides (Bull.) Quél. (1872); Strophariaceae
    359. Psilocybe physaloides var. substerilis J.E. Lange (1936); Strophariaceae
    360. Psilocybe pileocystidiata Guzmán & Ram.-Guill. (2004); Strophariaceae
    361. Psilocybe pintonii Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    362. Psilocybe plana Rick (1930); Strophariaceae
    363. Psilocybe pleurocystidiosa Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    364. Psilocybe plutonia (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    365. Psilocybe polycephala H.K.G. Paul; Strophariaceae
    366. Psilocybe polytrichi (Fr.) Sacc. (1948), (= Hypholoma polytrichi), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    367. Psilocybe polytrichophila (Peck) Pomerl. (1980); Strophariaceae
    368. Psilocybe portoricensis Guzmán, Nieves-Riv. & F. Tapia (1997); Strophariaceae
    369. Psilocybe praetervisa Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    370. Psilocybe pratensis P.D. Orton (1969), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    371. Psilocybe pseudoaztecorum Natarajan & Raman (1985); Strophariaceae
    372. Psilocybe pseudobullacea (Petch) Pegler (1977), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    373. Psilocybe pseudocyanea (Desm.) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia pseudocyanea), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    374. Psilocybe pseudocyanea f. ochrocyanea (Bon) Noordel. (1999); Strophariaceae
    375. Psilocybe pseudocyanea f. pseudocyanea (Desm.) Noordel. (1995); Strophariaceae
    376. Psilocybe pteridophytorum Singer (1960); Strophariaceae
    377. Psilocybe puberula Bas & Noordel. (1996); Strophariaceae
    378. Psilocybe pulicosa Mont.; Strophariaceae
    379. Psilocybe pyrispora (Murrill) A.H. Sm. (1948); Strophariaceae
    380. Psilocybe quebecensis Ola'h & R. Heim (1967), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    381. Psilocybe radicosum (J.E. Lange) Noordel. (1995), (= Hypholoma radicosum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    382. Psilocybe ramulosa (Guzmán & Bononi) Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    383. Psilocybe recognita (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1895); Strophariaceae
    384. Psilocybe rhododendronensis Stamets nom. prov.
    385. Psilocybe rhodophaea Mont.; Strophariaceae
    386. Psilocybe rhombispora (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1895), (= Psilocybe phyllogena), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    387. Psilocybe rhomboidospora (G.F. Atk.) A.H. Sm. (1983); Strophariaceae
    388. Psilocybe rostrata (Petch) Pegler (1986); Strophariaceae
    389. Psilocybe rufa Bres.; Strophariaceae
    390. Psilocybe rugosa Velen. (1921); Strophariaceae
    391. Psilocybe rugosoannulata (Farl. ex Murrill) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia rugosoannulata), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    392. Psilocybe rzedowskii Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    393. Psilocybe sabulosa Peck; Strophariaceae
    394. Psilocybe samoensis Henn. (1896); Strophariaceae
    395. Psilocybe samuiensis Guzmán, Band.-Muñoz & J.W. Allen (1993); Strophariaceae
    396. Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    397. Psilocybe sarcocephala (Fr.) Gillet (1878), (= Psathyrella sarcocephala), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    398. Psilocybe sarcocephala var. cookei Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    399. Psilocybe sarcocephala var. sarcocephala (Fr.) Gillet (1878); Strophariaceae
    400. Psilocybe sardoa Guzmán & Contu (2002); Strophariaceae
    401. Psilocybe scatigena (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    402. Psilocybe schoeneti Bresinsky (1976); Strophariaceae
    403. Psilocybe schultesii Guzmán & S.H. Pollock (1979); Strophariaceae
    404. Psilocybe sclerotifera (Speg.) Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    405. Psilocybe scobicola (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. (1887), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    406. Psilocybe scocholmica Park.-Rhodes (1950); Strophariaceae
    407. Psilocybe sellae Bres. & Mattir.; Strophariaceae
    408. Psilocybe semiangustipleurocystidiata Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & M. Torres (2004); Strophariaceae
    409. Psilocybe semiinconspicua Guzmán & J. M. Trappe
    410. Psilocybe semiglobata (Batsch) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia semiglobata), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    411. Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) P. Kumm. (1871), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    412. Psilocybe semilanceata var. caerulescens (Cooke) Sacc. (1887), (= Psilocybe strictipes), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    413. Psilocybe semilanceata var. microspora Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    414. Psilocybe semilanceata var. obtusata Bon (1985); Strophariaceae
    415. Psilocybe semilanceata var. semilanceata (Fr.) P. Kumm. (1871); Strophariaceae
    416. Psilocybe semistriata sensu Watling p.p. (BFF5), (= Psilocybe chionophila), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    417. Psilocybe semistriata (Peck) Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    418. Psilocybe sempervivae R. Heim & Cailleux (1958); Strophariaceae
    419. Psilocybe senex Peck; Strophariaceae
    420. Psilocybe septembris (Singer) Singer (1973); Strophariaceae
    421. Psilocybe septentrionalis (Guzmán) Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    422. Psilocybe serbica M.M. Moser & E. Horak (1969); Strophariaceae
    423. Psilocybe sierrae Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    424. Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    425. Psilocybe simulans P. Karst.; Strophariaceae
    426. Psilocybe singerii Guzmán (1979); Strophariaceae
    427. Psilocybe singeriana Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    428. Psilocybe singularis Guzmán, Escalona & J.Q. Jacobs (2004); Strophariaceae
    429. Psilocybe smithiana Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    430. Psilocybe spadicea sensu Lange (Fl. Dan. 4: 80 & pl. 148E), (= Psathyrella sarcocephala); Psathyrellaceae
    431. Psilocybe spadicea sensu J. Lange, (= Psathyrella sarcocephala), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    432. Psilocybe spadicea (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. (1871), (= Psathyrella spadicea), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    433. Psilocybe spadicea var. polycephala (Paulet) P. Karst. (1879); Strophariaceae
    434. Psilocybe spadicea var. spadicea (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. (1871); Strophariaceae
    435. Psilocybe spadiceogrisea (Schaeff.) Boud. (1911), (= Psathyrella spadiceogrisea), [RSD]; Psathyrellaceae
    436. Psilocybe sphagnicola A.H. Sm. (1946); Strophariaceae
    437. Psilocybe squalens (Fr.) P. Karst. (1887); Strophariaceae
    438. Psilocybe squamosa (Pers.) P.D. Orton (1969), (= Stropharia squamosa), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    439. Psilocybe squamosa var. squamosa (Pers.) P.D. Orton (1969); Strophariaceae
    440. Psilocybe squamosa var. thrausta (Schulzer ex Kalchbr.) Guzmán (1983), (= Stropharia thrausta), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    441. Psilocybe squamulosa (Massee) Noordel. (1995), (= Stropharia squamulosa), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    442. Psilocybe squarrosipes Singer (1960); Strophariaceae
    443. Psilocybe stagnina (Fr.) M. Lange (1957), (= Phaeogalera stagnina), [RSD]; Cortinariaceae
    444. Psilocybe stereicola Cleland (1927); Strophariaceae
    445. Psilocybe strictipes Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958), [RSD]; Strophariaceae (a.k.a. Psilocybe callosa)
    446. Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & J. Ott (1977), [RSD]; Strophariaceae (a.k.a. Psilocybe pugetensis)
    447. Psilocybe subacutipilea Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez (1994); Strophariaceae
    448. Psilocybe subaeruginascens Höhn., [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    449. Psilocybe subaeruginascens var. septentrionalis Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    450. Psilocybe subaeruginascens var. subaeruginascens Höhn.; Strophariaceae
    451. Psilocybe subaeruginosa Cleland (1927); Strophariaceae
    452. Psilocybe subagraria G.F. Atk.; Strophariaceae
    453. Psilocybe subalnetorum Guzmán & E. Horak (1978); Strophariaceae
    454. Psilocybe subammophila Cleland (1927); Strophariaceae
    455. Psilocybe subanellariiformis Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    456. Psilocybe subborealis Guzmán & A.H. Sm. (1978); Strophariaceae
    457. Psilocybe subbrevipes A.H. Sm. & Hesler (1946); Strophariaceae
    458. Psilocybe subbrunneocystidiata P.S. Silva & Guzmán
    459. Psilocybe subcaerulipes Hongo (1958); Strophariaceae
    460. Psilocybe subcoprophila (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1895), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    461. Psilocybe subcubensis Guzmán (1978), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    462. Psilocybe subericaea (Fr.) Sacc. (1887), (= Hypholoma subericaeum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    463. Psilocybe subfimetaria Guzmán & A.H. Sm. (1978); Strophariaceae
    464. Psilocybe subheliconiae Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & M. Torres (2004); Strophariaceae
    465. Psilocybe subhoogshagenii Guzmán, M. Torres & Ram.-Guill. (2004); Strophariaceae
    466. Psilocybe subhyperella Singer (1973); Strophariaceae
    467. Psilocybe submaculata G.F. Atk.; Strophariaceae
    468. Psilocybe submaritima Contu & Guzmán (2002); Strophariaceae
    469. Psilocybe subpsilocybioides Guzmán, Lodge & S.A. Cantrell (2003); Strophariaceae
    470. Psilocybe subtropicalis Guzmán (1995); Strophariaceae
    471. Psilocybe subuda (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1889); Strophariaceae
    472. Psilocybe subuda Cleland (1934); Strophariaceae
    473. Psilocybe subviridis (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    474. Psilocybe subviscida (Peck) Kauffman (1918), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    475. Psilocybe subviscida var. subviscida (Peck) Kauffman (1918); Strophariaceae
    476. Psilocybe subviscida var. velata Noordel. & Verduin (1999), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    477. Psilocybe subyungensis Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    478. Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán (2000); Strophariaceae
    479. Psilocybe sullivantii (Mont.) Sacc.; Strophariaceae
    480. Psilocybe taediosa Kalchbr.; Strophariaceae
    481. Psilocybe taiwanensis Guzmán, G. & Yang Z.L. (2010); Strophariaceae
    482. Psilocybe tampanensis Guzmán & Pollock (1978), [RSD]; Strophariaceae (a.k.a. "prima donna")
    483. Psilocybe tasmaniana Guzmán & Watling (1978); Strophariaceae
    484. Psilocybe tegularis (Schumach.) Gillet (1887); Strophariaceae
    485. Psilocybe testaceofulva (Britzelm.) Sacc. (1887); Strophariaceae
    486. Psilocybe thaizapoteca Guzmán, Karunar. & Ram.-Guill.
    487. Psilocybe thrausta (Schulzer) Bon (1970), (= Stropharia thrausta), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    488. Psilocybe tibetensis Massee; Strophariaceae
    489. Psilocybe togoensis Henn. (1891); Strophariaceae
    490. Psilocybe tomentosa (Murrill) A.H. Sm. (1948); Strophariaceae
    491. Psilocybe toogaadyalis Grgur. (1997); Strophariaceae
    492. Psilocybe tortipes Speg.; Strophariaceae
    493. Psilocybe tristis Henn.; Strophariaceae
    494. Psilocybe tropicalis Speg.; Strophariaceae
    495. Psilocybe trufemiae Guzmán & Bononi (1984); Strophariaceae
    496. Psilocybe tuberosa P. Karst.; Strophariaceae
    497. Psilocybe tuberosa (Redhead & Kroeger) Walleyn (1998); Strophariaceae
    498. Psilocybe turficola J. Favre (1939), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    499. Psilocybe tuxtlensis Guzmán (1983); Strophariaceae
    500. Psilocybe uda sensu Cooke, Rea (1922), (= Hypholoma elongatum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    501. Psilocybe uda (Pers.) Gillet (1878), (= Hypholoma udum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    502. Psilocybe uda f. sphagnicola J.E. Lange (1936); Strophariaceae
    503. Psilocybe uda f. uda (Pers.) Gillet (1878); Strophariaceae
    504. Psilocybe uda subsp. elongata (Pers.) Sacc. (1889), (= Hypholoma elongatum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    505. Psilocybe uda subsp. polytrichi Fr.; Strophariaceae
    506. Psilocybe uda subsp. uda (Pers.) Gillet (1878); Strophariaceae
    507. Psilocybe uda var. elongata (Pers.) Gillet (1874), (= Hypholoma elongatum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    508. Psilocybe uda var. polytrichi (Fr.) Gillet (1874), (= Hypholoma polytrichi), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    509. Psilocybe uda var. uda (Pers.) Gillet (1878); Strophariaceae
    510. Psilocybe umbrospora Velen. (1921); Strophariaceae
    511. Psilocybe unicolor Peck; Strophariaceae
    512. Psilocybe uruguayensis Singer ex Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    513. Psilocybe uxpanapensis Guzmán (1979); Strophariaceae
    514. Psilocybe valdiviensis Singer (1969); Strophariaceae
    515. Psilocybe vanhoeffenii Henn.; Strophariaceae
    516. Psilocybe velifera (J. Favre) Singer (1986), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    517. Psilocybe venenata (S. Imai) Imazeki & Hongo (1957); Strophariaceae
    518. Psilocybe venezuelana Dennis (1961); Strophariaceae
    519. Psilocybe verae-crucis Guzmán & Pérez Ortiz{?} (1978); Strophariaceae
    520. Psilocybe vernalis Velen. (1921); Strophariaceae
    521. Psilocybe vialis Murrill (1923); Strophariaceae
    522. Psilocybe vicina Fr.; Strophariaceae
    523. Psilocybe villarrealiae Guzmán (=Psilocybe villarrealii Guzmán)
    524. Psilocybe virescens (Cooke & Massee) Massee (1892); Strophariaceae
    525. Psilocybe weraroa Borov., Oborník & Noordel. (2011); Strophariaceae
    526. Psilocybe washingtonensis A.H. Sm. (1946); Strophariaceae
    527. Psilocybe wassonii R. Heim (1958); Strophariaceae
    528. Psilocybe wassoniorum Guzmán & S.H. Pollock (1979); Strophariaceae
    529. Psilocybe wayanadensis K.A. Thomas, Manim. & Guzmán (2002); Strophariaceae
    530. Psilocybe weilii Stamets (1996); Strophariaceae
    531. Psilocybe weilii Guzmán, Stamets & F. Tapia (1997); Strophariaceae
    532. Psilocybe weldenii Guzmán (1979); Strophariaceae
    533. Psilocybe wrightii Guzmán (1978); Strophariaceae
    534. Psilocybe xalapensis Guzmán & A. López (1979); Strophariaceae
    535. Psilocybe xanthocephala (P.D. Orton) Noordel. (1995), (= Hypholoma xanthocephalum), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    536. Psilocybe xeroderma Huijsman (1961); Strophariaceae
    537. Psilocybe yungensis Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    538. Psilocybe yungensis var. diconica Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    539. Psilocybe yungensis var. yungensis Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958); Strophariaceae
    540. Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum Guzmán, T.J. Baroni & Lodge (2003); Strophariaceae
    541. Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & T.J. Baroni (2003); Strophariaceae
    542. Psilocybe zapotecorum R. Heim (1957), [RSD]; Strophariaceae
    543. Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosa Guzmán & Bononi (1984); Strophariaceae
    544. Psilocybe zapotecorum var. zapotecorum R. Heim (1957); Strophariaceae
    545. Psilocybe zonalis Velen. (1921); Strophariaceae
    546. Psilocybe zoncuantlensis Guzmán & Ram.-Guill. (1999); Strophariaceae

    547. Newly discovered or others missing in above (original) list:


    548. Psilocybe allenii Borovička J., Rockefeller A., Werner P.G. (2012); Strophariaceae
    549. Psilocybe alutacea W. S. Chang and A. K. Mills.
    550. Psilocybe chuxiongensis T. Ma & K.D. Hyde
    551. Psilocybe cyanofranciscana nom. prov.
    552. Psilocybe gallaeciae Guzmán & M.L. Castro (2003)
    553. Psilocybe germanica Gartz (2015)
    554. Psilocybe hepatochrous (Berk.) M. Lago & M.L. Castro 2004
    555. Psilocybe karalensis sp. nov.
    556. Psilocybe macrocystis
    557. Psilocybe mescaleroensis Guzmán, Walstad, E. Gándara & Ram.-Guill.
    558. Psilocybe moravica Borov. (2003); Strophariaceae
    559. Psilocybe neocaledonicum Guzmán & Horak
    560. Psilocybe neoxalapensis Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & Halling (2009)
    561. Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata Guzmán et Gaines
    562. Psilocybe rhododendronensis Stamets nom. prov.
    563. Psilocybe semiinconspicua Guzmán & J. M. Trappe
    564. Psilocybe subbrunneocystidiata P.S. Silva & Guzmán
    565. Psilocybe taiwanensis Guzmán, G. & Yang Z.L. (2010); Strophariaceae
    566. Psilocybe thaizapoteca Guzmán, Karunar. & Ram.-Guill.
    567. Psilocybe villarrealiae Guzmán (=Psilocybe villarrealii Guzmán)
    568. Psilocybe weraroa Borov., Oborník & Noordel. (2011); Strophariaceae

    SPECIES' DESCRIPTIONS


    Psilocybe cubensis „Albino A+“




    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: Very pale cream, especially in the center, to white often with bluish tones, sometimes with a sharp central nipple. Universal veil remnant spots are present but inconspicuous against the pale cap.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed. Grayish coloration in young fruit bodies becoming nearly black in maturity.
    • Stem/Stipe: Similar in coloration to the cap, bluing intensely with damage. Partial veil leaves a persistent membranous annulus that is soon purple with spores.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purple in deposit.

    Habitat: Bovine, Equine Dung and Enriched Soils.

    Comment: Unlike the PF albino, this mutated strain retains normally pigmented spores. Since there is also a small amount of pigment in the carpophores, this strain is better considered a leucistic form instead of a true albino.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Amazonian“




    This Amazonian strain produces very thick and fleshy mushrooms. Although it is not the easiest strain to grow it may, if properly managed, produce some very nice flushes. The number of mushrooms may not be very big, the size more than compensates for this. Fruitbodies are very solid and have a massive stem.
    Cold-shocking is definitely required for this one or else the mycelium will completely cover the casing and this makes watering impossible. This condition also causes mushrooms to only form on the sides of the trays (which will lower your yields)
    The mycelium of this strain is extremely rhizomorphic.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Argentina“




    This magnificent Cubensis argentina produces massive amounts of shrooms, is of mediocre size and flushes and flushes forever.
    This strain has been known to grow on alder wood and fruit, compost, straw, dung, rice and it's apparent favorite, bird or finch seed. Not only does it thrive during indoor breeding, it also has a very pleasant appearance and is very easy to breed. It will certainly produce lovely prints.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Australian“




    Hello fellow mushroom enthusiast. This strain of cubensis was picked by BIO in Australia some years back and produces some very healthy, classic text book, golden top cubensis. It has potential to grow some very large fruits at times. Sometimes excedeing 1 foot in height on simple substrates such as birdseed. Usually it will produce a varied amount of vary large fruits, or a huge abundance of average sized fruits, using the substrate very well. On DB compost it we have seen it produce fruits over 18" tall. This strain does excellent on DB compost. Its colonizing speed is average, not breaking any records, but certianly not slow. Another nice characteristic of this strain is it produces very thick, solid stems. We have also found over time this mushroom is very comparable to the ecuador cubensis in many aspects.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe cubensis „B+“




    The infamous B+ strain of cubensis... what a chameleon this one is. This is by far the most versatile cubensis we've ever seen. Adapting and growing in such a wide range of temperature conditions and substrates. It truly thrives to spread its seed, which by the way its a very heavy spore depositor. Not only does it grow easily indoors, we've seen the B+ fruit outdoors several times in a wide range of temps and substrates. Several times one winter, night time low of 45F, day high of 60F, the B+ just flourished. Spring/summer, low of 75F, high of 90F, the B+ once again fruited beautifully. We've seen it grow on alder wood and fruit, compost, straw,dung,rice, and it especially loves bird/finch seed. We've heard so many good reports back from ppl that just love this mushroom and how easy it grows, and how beautiful it is, its loved by many.
    Although the B+ is not a super fast colonizer, its speed is average, producing some very large mushrooms that are generally a caramel color. Grown in cooler temperatures, it usually always produces a very beautiful color caramel cap and stems. The stems are generally very thick, and it produces some large caps. It also drops a very thick veil. Grown in warmer temps, its color changes to a more golden color at times.
    The B+ cubensis has been around for a while. It was brought to us by a grower that went by Mr. G. There was a lot of controversy surrounding this mushroom for so long because Mr. G started off by telling everyone it was an azure/cubensis hybrid. Although at times it does grow some broadly umbonate caps like Psilocybe azurescens, it is just a unique cubensis. But a huge thanks to Mr. G, where ever you are these days, for bringing us such a beautiful mushroom. We like to refer to this one as "super strain". It really is a superior cubensis in many ways.
    This is a Hawk's Eye Favorite and belongs in everyone collection!
    These were grown outdoors in a greenhouse, on a mix of 2:1 finch seed to vermiculite, then cased using the 50/50+ tek and mix.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Blue Meanie“




    The Blue Meanie strain is kind of mystery strain to me.
    "Blue Meanies" which is a widely known name for Pan cyan for about 30 years seemed to become also a kind of new cubensis strain. Sometimes a certain vendor renames a strain for I guess commercial purposes. The Z-strain seems to be such a kind of strain. But no one seems to know what strain it should be. It looks a little like the Golden Teacher, but it isn't.
    Well we found this strain on some respected vendor sites as a cubensis so we are ready to put this strain on the list.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Brasil“




    This strain has its origin in Brasil. It's a very rhizomorphic and strong colonizer with medium sized mushrooms. It fruits very fast and appears in clusters counting a large number of mushrooms. No need to isolate this strain to get good results!

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Cambodia“




    This is by far one of the fastest colonizing strains of cubensis we have ever seen. We've given it to a few other ppl who witnessed the same results. Let me give you an example. 3 days after inoculation, the strain germinated and 100% colonized 1/2 pint finch seed/verm jars in only 7 days. It was then cased and started pinning 10 days after being cased with a 1" thick casing layer. Mushrooms were harvested 25 days after inoculation. Every patch we've planted has given us the same amazing results...this strain just thrives to spread its sacred seed. We've seen a lot of different strains of Psilocybe mushrooms grow over the years.. but this one takes the gold metal for one of the fasted growing cubensis.
    Not only do they grow extremely quick, but produced some absolutely beautiful textbook cubensis. This cubensis was originally picked by John Allen while in Cambodia filming some of the Psilocybe mushrooms that are growing there. We have also found this to be one of the most potent cubensis we've ever eaten, delivering a very nice energetic high that tended to last quite a while. Its not an extremely intense experience, just very energetic and last a long long time. Very smooth as well without much body noise. This one really wakes you up in a beautiful way. If you like the energetic journeys from these mushrooms, this is your ticket to an all night exploration.
    John Allen and his film grew said they found it to be very potent for a cubensis as well.
    These cubensis along with some Copelandia cambodgeniensis grow in the cattle (brahmans) dung around the Angkor Wat Templeat Siem Reap, Cambodia.
    You can see more pictures of this mushroom taken by J. Allen at spiritplants.com.
    As for cultivating conditions, it does really well on finch or birdseed, eats through grains, fruits on dung well, loves compost, and seems to love high temps. We've had this mushroom colonize rapidly in 85f+ temps.. and fruited at 93F+ temps with no problem. It loves heat!!!! It also generates lots of heat, so take this in to consideration when incubating and fruiting. This is definitely the summer mushroom of choice. We've also heard back from ppl that the jars of mycelium put off a lot of heat.... not many mushrooms do well in those high of temps.... definitely your outdoor late spring/summer strain. It took a while.. but we have domesticated this strain... and its very stable now, it also withstands contamination very well.
    Recently a lot of pictures have been surfacing of this cub doing very well in outdoor patches at cooler temperatures as well. Another thing we have noticed and heard back, is sometimes it produces nice smooth stems, and beautiful caps, textbook cubs, then other times it produces some lumpy stems. They also produce and abundance of mushrooms in a small area. Not a very large growing mushroom on grains, but produces some very large fruits on dung or compost. On grains they make up for the small size by produces a lot of mushrooms in a small area. Be sure and check out the pictures of the cambodians on compost below, this mushroom produces some really beautiful fruits.
    For colonization, we recommend 75F-80f, not much higher because they throw off a lot of heat. For fruiting, it will fruit in lower temps of 60F, but it loves heat once again... fruiting will occur from 60F to 93f+.... yes.. 93F+ :) This is one of our favorite cubensis strains because its so fast colonizing and fruiting and is very easy on the mind, body and soul.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 23-26°C / 15-34°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Cambodian Gold“




    The Cambodian Gold is a F1 hybrid of Psilocybe Golden Teacher x Cambodia. This strain is developed by a dutch Growkit producer to immediately start growing a variety of the iconic Golden Teacher strain at home.
    It has long been a dream for this producer to provide an easy-to-use grow kit for Psilocybe cubensis Golden Teacher, but the strain underperformed and seemed unsuitable as a 'Ready-To-Grow' box. However, through a process of controlled mycelium growing and careful selections, the spores of Cambodia and Golden Teacher were brought together as a powerful cross with hybrid vigour that is called "Cambodian Gold".
    The Cambodian Gold was first introduced as a 'Ready-To-Grow' box at Azarius!

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Colombian“




    This one has a nice history from our friend Plankton88 in Colombia who sent us the spores earlier this year. He picks this strain from the cowfields of the nearby little village Villa de Leiva. He personally found them to very potent and a beautiful journey and wanted to help spread the seed if this wonderful cubensis.
    There were 2 strains of cubensis sent to us, one from Guato and this one from Villa de Leiva. As for the growing parameters, its a very fast colonizing strain. This strain tends to grow a mix of rhizomorphic mycelium, and cottony mycelium, (multi spore inoculation)yet grows very fast. The strange thing is that when this strain fruits, the mushrooms cant hold their own weight very well. They topple over. Our growers have grown this mushroom several times and find this very interesting why they don't stand up. We need your help with this one. So many mushrooms to cover.. so much energy being spent. As you can see they grow rather large and in huge clumps, rather cool looking I think. We would like to hear your feedback. We're offering this one at a discounted rate just to get some feedback.
    As for the high, very clean, yet somewhat mellow. It is a great "social" mushroom. You get the beauty of the mushroom high, yet its very mellow and smooth. Very easy to talk in groups of ppl on this one without feeling to overwhelmed by the psilocybin experience on the psyche. A very "low anxiety" mushroom. It comes on very mellow, slow and smooth. Its great for being around a lot of ppl without having that "high anxiety" feeling of restlessness some mushrooms give. Count on an easy going peaceful journey. This coming from only one experience on these. You be the judge, feel free to send us any feedback you have for this new strain from Colombia.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Ecuador“




    Coming to you all the way from 3500+ feet up in the Ecuador mountains is the beautiful ecuadorian cubensis. This one was picked by BIO, and is very widespread around the world at this point :O). Spread that seed to the wind brother. This mushroom has become very popular in many cultures as it grows very easily in nature. It also produces some very nice golden color mushrooms and it has been noted by many to be one of the most beautiful, picture perfect cubensis out there. Out in nature under God's grace, it produces an abundance of nice big healthy mushrooms.
    According to our friends in Ecuador who eat this mushroom, the euphoric sensation it creates is a very dreamy, relaxing, and can be quite visual.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Ecuador Yosterizzii“




    This strain came from Mushroomtroll. He gave the following description.
    Psilocybe cubensis ecuadorian var. Yosterizii it has a very noticeable wood grain and linear line on the cap some are w/out annulus. It took about 3 years to develop it, and it is a repeating flusher (if you keep your incubator free from parasite you will get a flush every 2 weeks for about 6 month, this strain does not require a casing but is a must for repeated flush (I usually lay perlite at the bottom 2 inch and add 1 inch of water that is presterilize, lay a 1/4 inch of colonize grain over it and then cover with 1 inch of peat moss. (The peat moss is watered to the point were only a few drops of water is running between my fingers and then sterilize.)

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „F+“




    Originated from a wild Florida Psilocybe cubensis. Isolation was carried out and ended with a cloned fruit. All F+ lineages come from this clone.
    The strain is very aggressive and colonises most substrates in exceptional time. F+ has even been fruited from wood chips. Like most cubensis, F+ does best on horse and cow dung. The mycelium of F+ is predominantly tomentose to intermediately linear, although it can grow very rhizomorphically under certain conditions. Despite the predominate tomentose growth, F+ usually pins prolifically.
    The fruits from this strain have the ability to grow rather large.
    Defining characteristics of this strain include: mycelial spots on cap, symmetrical caps, mycelial growth well along the stem, and an umbilicate cap.
    Joshua who isolated this strain hopes that all will enjoy it and that it will be spread to mycologists throughout the world.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Golden Mammoth“




    Well, there is a lot of Internet gospel going on about this strain. Here are some info's we at FSRE have collected. A commercial vendor in Canada is the only source claiming this strain. On there website thy have the following info's:

    "'GOLDEN MAMMOTH' (psilocybe aureus tantus) is the ultimate, amazing Psilocybe cubensis strain. The Golden Mammoth has earned itself a reputation as the best among Psilocybe cubensis magic mushrooms strains, the most prolific, reliable and resistant study available.
    Developed 13 years ago by an expert mycologist with over 30 years experience, the Golden Mammoth strain arose after extensive research. Professionally perfected, the Golden Mammoth has a pure lineage and virus free genetic line. The Golden Mammoth is the strongest, most vigorous Psilocybe cubensis strain in distribution. This strain delivers mammoth amounts of research material. General Appearance: Gold colored cap. White veiled stem 8"-10" tall."


    Whatever the story is behind this strain, we at FSRE can confirm that it's not a rename of the B+ or Golden Teacher. This strain shows his own unique characteristics. And we do belief that this strain is the result of hard work from a professional mycologist.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Golden Teacher“




    Class is now in session. Eat a few caps and prepare for your cosmo highway lessons! There is a lot of uncertainty as to where this strain originates from. Its believed to come from a company out of Amsterdam a couple years back. We obtained our original print from The Spore Works. After our grower, -Clyde- at the Birds Nest, grew it out several times, he really enjoyed it and decided it was a keeper. Its a semi fast grower and produces some large caps. We've heard a lot of ppl give praise to its potency and heard from several different circle of friends they find the green and purple spectrums of sight are very enhanced.
    An additional note to avoid confusion. Another popular spore supplier claims the PES Hawaiian and Golden Teacher (GT) are one and the same and sells them this way. -Clyde- has grown them both out several times and found they were completely different in size and growth, and decided the PES H was not worth keeping (in our opinion, if you enjoy it then great!)and the GT is definitely worth keeping and spreading the seed. Enough said, we're going with the GT.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Guadalajara mexico“




    Another cubie from Mexico we're offering is this decent little strain of cubensis from Guadalajara. We're not exactly sure who the found the original specimen, but Workman found the connection in Mexico and fruited this strain to help spread the spores. Nothing really spectacular about its growing parameters. Semi-fast colonizer, produces rather small caps, but average in size overall. We decided to keep it for a while because the word around the camp fire is the potency is considered high for a cubie, and ppl have been asking for it. We have also noticed that most cubs from Mexico tend to be smaller then average, but also very visual. An additional note, its been in this authors experiences, that mushrooms from Mexico tend to deliver powerful spiritual journeys.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Gulf Coast“




    Gulf Coast cubensis generally means it is a wild growing cubensis that grows along ocean bordering states such as Texas, Alabama, Florida, Georgia etc. Spores from one state can easily travel to the next through birds, farm animals, hurricanes etc... They adapt along the coastal states to the new growing conditions and take up habitat near the warm humid ocean islands. From what I hear.. most people are very satisfied with these GC strains because they are fast colonizers and produce some above average potency. We do hear a lot that some people have a hard time getting them to pin and fruit easily, while other GC strains fruit very easily. We have worked with a lot of different GC strain over the years people have sent us. With so many out their from the coastal states of the U.S.A. we decided to stick with ONE that a good friend of ours has grown over and over and produced excellent results. We compared his results to the strain we were working with and decided he had the best strain of GC cubensis we had seen yet. After our grower -Clyde- worked with it a few times, sure enough we saw some great results and decided to keep it and stop all further work with the other GC strains such as the Alabama GC below. It is believed this one originated from Texas but our friend was not 100% sure on that. So for reference we are calling it T.H.E. GC so as to not get confused with the many other GC strains floating around out there. This one is truly exceptional and we're glad to add it to The Hawks Eye collection of exceptional cubensis strains.
    This GC strain does not seem as stubborn as some of the GC strains we have seen in the past. It fruits very easily in a range of temperature conditions from 60F to 90F. For best results we recommend keeping temps around 75F.
    Psilocybe cubensis „Gulf Coast Alabama US“
    This strain of cubensis was sent to us from a sacred mushroom hunter in Alabama U.S. We originally received the print, it was easily 6 1/2" in diameter. One very large print from a very large mushroom. The hunter said it was one of his favorite strains of cubensis he hunts there in Alabama, and judging from the print size and what we've seen when grown, we can see why.
    This strain is a fast colonizer, and very easy to grow. Something unusual about it, was that the mushrooms grew in large clusters of 10-25 mushrooms. 80% of the casing grew this way. Overall, this GC Alabama is a real nice strain, but potency seemed rather low for a cubensis.
    This Alabama GC strain fully colonized 1/2 pint finch seed/verm 2:1 ratio in about 16 days from inoculation. Started fruiting within 2 weeks of being cased, using 50/50+ tek. Tends to grow some very thick solid stems and grows in clusters. Grows well in temps ranging from 60F-85F. Not a real heavy spore depositor though, but a very fast growing mushroom.
    A nice cluster of GCA's - 23 mushrooms in this cluster.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 15-32°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Huautla“




    Psilocybe cubensis strain finds its origins in Huautla de Jímenez, a small village in the Oaxaca state of Mexico. Here Gordon R. Wasson first tried Psilocybe mushrooms becoming the first white person to have experienced a magic mushroom ceremony.
    This is the magic mushroom that Maria Sabina used for her veladas, when the Psilocybe caerulescens season was finished. It carries with it a spiritual load unequaled in Psilocybe cubensis.
    Club99 collected this Psilocybe cubensis strain in the end of July, 2001 growing on a pasture land, into the grass. Interestingly Psilocybe cubensis Huautla was not seen growing directly on dung.
    Magic mushrooms are tall and thin and have a uniquely shaped cap. Psilocybe cubensis Huautla is a easy fruiter.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „John Allen“




    The following info about this strain was posted by John Allen at the entheogen.com forum!
    The Allen strain was developed by Hydorogen of the Shroomery in honor of my research and spore print gathering.
    Another one he developed was the Elephant Gate Strain. I did not name either one of those although they are from Koh Samui. The Allen strain I cannot recall what area it is from. I did not name it. But I understand it too is a fast colonizer like the BHT and the Cambodian Cubes.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Keepers Creeper“




    This mushroom arrived us by The Little Guy. We won a print in a nice contest on the Shroomery. So our first genetic material came from BoxTop from TLG and was won in a contest.The original Creeper comes from Keeper. Also an resource for prints, however the most expensive one on this globe. Personally I do not believe in his fantasie stock with fantasie hybrides and exclusive prices.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Malabar“




    Wonderful Prolific fruiter. Nice thick and meaty fruits. These can get fairly large. Unique cap that appears flat on top before the cap opens up. Stems are fairly thick, definitely dense, and meaty. Also veil tends to stay attached, sometimes even at full maturity. You will most likely have to break the veil yourself to print these. Avg. to dark spore depositor.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Matias Romero“




    This is a nice rizomorphic strain. Lots of pins and lots of aborts. But with proper moisture content and humidity many (but not all) aborts can be avoided. This strain loves water but don't go drowning it! Fat meaty stems particularly at the base of the stem and great yields. This strain is named after the Mexican village Matias Romero where it was collected. It produces, some smaller, but fat stemmed mushrooms that usually form in clusters. This strain profits a lot from cold-shocking. The veil for the most part breaks cleanly away from the cap and caps leave heavy spore deposits.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Mazatapec Mexicana“




    Another fantastic cubensis from Mexico is the strain picked around Mazatapec Mexico. For those of you into the spiritual side of mushrooms, I'm sure you will enjoy this one a lot, as I've always noticed mushrooms from Mexico tend to deliver a very powerful spiritual journey. We've heard a lot of great feedback from ppl over time on this one having very beautiful visions after embracing its gift. Although you may have a tremendous spiritual or visual experience on these, you'll need a little patience. These tend to colonize a little slower them most. Count on an extra 10-14 days to your project. The little extra wait is well worth it.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „McKennaii“




    The first appearance of this strain was in Dutch smartshops. It was available as a fresh mushroom shortly after the dead of Terrence McKenna. We belief this strain was named after Terrence McKenna in order to honor him. This could be a marketing trick from the smartshops, but still it's very honorable to name a strain after Terrence Mckenna.
    The following info is according to the website of one of our sponsors, which offers this strain as a Growkit:
    "The McKennaii might be even stronger than the popular but difficult to grow Hawaiian (Copelandia cyanescens). No doubt the McKennaii is the strongest cubensis in our catalog. This one is for the more visually interested. Dark brown caps with an odd shape and thick sturdy stems."
    Also this info could be part of the marketing trick!

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Mexican“




    This mushroom was originally found in Southern Mexico, from Mr. G. A very beautiful mushroom always giving beautiful spotted caps, usually of a nice yellowish color instead of your typical cubensis golden tan color. Sometimes it even throws off some orangeish colored spotted caps. It tends to grow with smaller stems and rather large caps compared to its stem. A rather fast strain, and very easy to grow. It does exceptionally well cased, and will continue to flush over and over within a week of each other. Although not a giant sized mushroom, it produces an abundance of mushrooms continually. You can usually count on a minimum of 4 really good flushes from this strain, and sometimes more. Another nice key feature about this cubensis, as that it fruits well in cooler temps of 50F, but also grows like all other cubensis at the higher temps of 75F-85F.
    One special characteristic about this mushrooms potency, is it doesn't seem to give the high anxiety a lot of mushrooms do when the first initial waves of euphoria come over you. Its a very smooth, clean high, with a nice heavy play on the eyes.
    The mexi-cub is truly a beauty to marvel at for its unique appearance, definitely gets a "best of show" award.
    Some beautiful new pics of the mexi-cub on Dung Brothers compost inside of the 10lb THE DB KIT. These are absolute monsters for the usually small growing mexi-cub.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Mystery Fatass“




    This strain produces mushrooms with the fattest asses you have ever seen! The caps are hard to print as she looses her spores poorly. The first flush consists of mushrooms with an unusually fat stem. In later flushes some very big mushrooms can be harvested.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Nepal Chitwan“




    Description: Original collection material was obtained by Baerbel near the Chitwan Jungle of Nepal. Three specimens were located in otherwise dry climate conditions, growing in tall grass and shaded by a nearby tree. Specimens picked from what appeared to be either elephant or rhino dung. Original sample specimen pictures below and right.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 20-70 mm in diameter, hemispheric expanding to nearly plane with age. Golden brown maturing to light brown. Fine fibrillose veil remnants when young that soon mostly disappear. Flesh yellowish white soon bruising bluish green.
    • Stem/Stipe: 150-200+ mm in length. Typically equal, sometimes slightly enlarged at base. Yellowish to buff with a reflective sheen, bruising bluish, semi hollow with remains of the partial veil.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed. Yellowish coloration in young fruit bodies becoming darker in maturity. Remains of the partial veil attached at the outer circumference of the cap.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown, subellipsoid on 4-spored basidia.



    source - www.sporeworks.com

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Orissa India“




    All the way from India, an EXTREMELY large growing cubensis that spawned from elephant dung has blessed us all. This strain of cubensis has to be one of the largest growing anyone has seen. Originally brought to us my entheomycologist John Allen, once again a big thanks John, this one really rocks the boat. Ever seen dinner plate sized mushrooms? Even on simple rice cakes in Amsterdam this one grows some rather large mushrooms.
    -Clyde- and his fellow Amsterdam growers have seen some mixed results from this one as well. Although something so large comes with a small price, at times its rather unstable when taken from the dung fields to the grow shops of Amsterdam. The Amsterdam growers tells us although the first flushes at times can be unstable, the rest are outstanding and produce these monster mushrooms like they have never seen. The Indian cubensis also grows around most green mold like its nothing. They continue to flourish around green mold like Oyster mushrooms do. I guess it must be something in the elephant dung that has helped this mushroom develop and immunity to most green mold (trichoderma) The more -Clyde- has worked with it the better it gets.
    Colonizing speed is average, potency is extreme for a cub from the feedback we got from the Amsterdam coffee shops and the locals in India.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Pensacola“




    This strain was first donated to the FSRE by Ashes.
    The FSRE is very happy to share this interesting cubensis strain from Pensacola, Florida. Be surprised by the appearance of this beauty. Growing fast with strong rhizomorphic mycelium, easy fruiting with short but massive fruits.
    This strain is worth a try!!

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „PESA“




    Ready for some drama and controversy :). This one has an interesting story behind it. A company out of Hawaii called Pacific Exotic Spora (PES) advertise this strain as a cubensis/azurescens hybrid. They even went so far as to claim it came from the mushroom master Paul Stamets himself. Well people, there has been a lot of azure/cub hybrid scams in the past, and to this day the experts such as P. Stamets have not published any information about being able to hybridize a Psilocybe azurescens with a Psilocybe cubensis. They are completely different species and this task would certainly be extremely difficult. I'm sure if anyone can do it, P. Stamets can, and hopefully one day he will. But until something is published, do not buy into it. This is nothing more then a very potent cubensis.

    About a year ago when they started advertising this hybrid, a bunch of us pitched in to get a print of this (yes, that is how high there prices are :) and Workman grew it out and once again, a cub/azure hybrid was nothing more then a cubensis. Our grower here at T.H.E. has grown out all the cubs from PES, and found this the only one worth keeping. Another company, PF, sells the PES Hawaiian, which is a different strain, and some ppl have the PES Amazonian, this strain is neither of those. If it helps with any of the confusion, just call it PESA.. and the A does not stand for Amazonian. I think it originally stood for Azurescens.
    PES (Pacific Exotic Spora)has been around for a while, and sells quite a few strains of cubs and panaeolus at a very very high price. We normally will not carry other strains that is unique to one company. But, since PES charges such a ridiculous price for a print of this strain, we decided to go ahead and carry it and share with everyone because most ppl will enjoy the extreme potency.

    Ok, enough of the controversial babble, now lets get down to the fact of this strain. Our grower -Clyde- finds this to be one of the most bluing cubensis he has ever worked with. After cutting these with a blade, they turn dark blue within 2-3 seconds!! Most cubs, take about 10-20 seconds to start turning dark blue. And everyone we know that has tried them found them to be extremely potent as well. Perhaps this is why PES started calling them cub/azure hybrids since the Psilocybe azurescens is the most potent mushroom in the world.
    So yes, the PESA is a VERY potent cub, but potency is not everything. It produces some very light caps, although large caps compared to small stems, and does tend to abort a lot. As you will see in the pics below if you look real close. It is a semi-fast colonizer, and fruits nicely in cold temps. So this mushroom does not utilize all of the substrate very well, but the mushrooms it does produce are just extremely potent and its a real good strain to add to your collection. Like I said, it was the only one of the PES strains we liked enough to keep. And its one of our growers favorite strains, I think he is just impressed with the extreme speed of the bluing effect... so easily entertained (wink).

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Penis Envy“




    We're happy to finally be able to bring you spores of our favorite cubensis. We would have loved to brought this one out sooner but this mushroom is extremely hard to obtain spores from. Only about 10% of the mushrooms actually drop spores. Every time we had a few prints they sold out immediately!

    Why is that? Well it is a mutant mushroom in a sense. This one was developed by the famous entheogenic mycologist/enthobotanist and psilonaut Terence McKenna, God bless his resting spirit. For those not familiar with Terence McKenna he was a famous author, speaker, mycologist, botanist on psychoactive plants and fungi. You can find a whole vault of his teachings in MP3 format at this link.

    My personal favorite book by him is Food of the Gods. Unfortunately Terence McKenna died last year of a brain tumor and now resides in Gods hands :0) See you on the cosmo highway Terence.

    Besides his wonderful teachings he left behind to fuel our thoughts and imagination, he also left one of the most unique and powerful cubensis mushrooms we have every experienced. Its nick named Penis Envy because they resemble.....well......you guessed it.. a penis. Terence was big on mushrooms and marijuana and he talks a lot of psilocybin mushrooms being a "male" energy and mj being a "female" energy. No wonder he developed a mushroom that looks like a penis :) Listen to many of his teachings and you will hear what I'm talking about.

    OK now for some information on the mushroom itself. Well this one is straight up amazing. Its favored by many and yet feared by others. Why? Its very powerful medicine. Most of our friends in Amsterdam claim this one is twice as strong as any cubensis they have ever tried. The vibe lasts a long, long time. It does not come on in "waves" as most cubensis do. Its a solid ride from start to finish. Once your on the vibe its solid.. it keeps going strong for many many hours... but in a very beautiful way. A few friends claimed it was to strong but most wanted more, more, more! On the times I had the opportunity while outside the U.S. to eat these, I was mesmerized. It was the perfect vibe for cubensis in my experiences. I love the fact it doesn't hit you in waves. Its the same strong vibe throughout the experience. It is very smooth, and clean and easy on the body. I always felt like a million bucks the day after eating these. In my humble opinion, this is the perfect vibe from a cubensis!

    Provided you live in a country where its legal to grow and eat psilocybin mushrooms, treat it like any other cubensis. You will not get huge flushes from it, but what you will get are extremely solid mushrooms that are the thickest cubensis mushrooms every seen. They are like little wood logs, solid all the way through. Once dry they weigh a lot more then appears. In fact eating them, its best not to just chomp down a mushroom unless your ready for an intense experience. Its best to break them up into a lot of pieces, almost fluff them up. What appears to be an average mushrooms fluffs up into a huge pile expanding to 3 to 4 times its actual size. Then you can judge your dosage much better. They grow very large on compost and dung based substrates as well on birdseed and rye grains. Our grower in Amsterdam has never grown them on rice cakes so no idea how they perform on that substrate.

    Now although this mushroom really is amazing, it drops very limited spores. If you cant get any spores from your mushrooms you can always cut off a piece and use tissue culture techniques on agar, cloning. Or you can take a cotton swab, such as a Q-tip and rub in the gills real good to get some spores, then later drop that in a bag of grain or streak it across agar. Of course that assumes you live where its legal to grow. Because spores are so hard to obtain from this mushroom they are priced much higher. Also we can not give these out free with our combo deals unless you buy at least 3 spore syringes as well. Thanks for understanding.

    A few pics for now. We have a lot more but they are all on video tape and I don't have time right now to pull them off. I will hopefully post some more amazing pictures soon. In fact I have some video footage of these already edited and will hopefully post that soon as well. I promise I will get some amazing pics up before we go out of business.

    The mushrooms from these pictures are average in size. But even the largest mushrooms in these pictures will dry to almost a 1/2 oz. That is how dense they are! -Clyde- started these on rye grain then transferred them to 10 lbs of compost. Just from one flush like this they will dry to about 3 ounces! Pretty damn amazing. As long as you can get over eating a mushroom that looks like a dick you will have many happy experiences on these.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Penis Envy 6“




    Shroomery veteran RogerRabbit, "Crossed a standard PE with the Tex strain." The result was PE 6.
    RogerRabbit's efforts were an attempt to create a PE strain which produced more spores... but the spores were accidentally released too early... when a few prints were unintentionally mailed out, in a stack of other prints.
    Here's how RogerRabbit says PE 6 came to be.

    "A single sector fruiting isolate of PE, and another of TEX were placed on a Petri dish with rattlesnake venom added to the agar. The snake venom helped the two dikaryotic strains share genetic information to form a third sector, which was which was labeled PE6. Other Isolates of the PE were labeled PE 1-7, and apparently, some of the 6, which was the cross, were in the same batch of prints. The idea was to get a good spore producing PE, but I never had time to stabilize the strain due to accidentally releasing it early. That's why sometimes they look like texans and sometimes very much like PE."

    PE 6 looks like a cross between Penis envy and Texans. The fruits often have LARGE caps, which open fully, unlike classic PE. They also produce spores. While the stems look quite a bit like PE. Thick and textured. Like little logs.
    RogerRabbit confirms this description: "the caps that opened fully have fewer spores like PE, and they have the same gnarly stems too. Only the caps seem to be bigger and to open all the way."

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „PF Classic“




    This PF strain is no different strain that the normal PF Classic. However this strain has been cultivated from approx. 1990 only on PF cakes (brf/verm) with no interruption of tissue culture.
    In order to keep this strain clean we hope you only use them on brf/verm cakes as the PF style describes. Classic 90 prints are a kind of collectors items I think and that's how they are offered. In order to keep this strain 100% real we will place the returned 90 prints in the regular Classic stock.
    This strain was donated by René of Perfect Fungi Europe. This strain is 100% Robert McPherson original. So it is the one and only PF Classic from the one and only Mister PF.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Plantasia Mystery“




    We're very happy to be able to bring this strain to you. There were a lot of rumors surrounding this strain for quite some time back in 98. It originated from The Grow Room, but Plantasia is no longer in the spore business so we asked him if he minded if we sell his unique strain and he was cool with it, so here is a new strain that we at The Hawks Eye think is good enough to turn everybody on to. Originally it was unsure weather this strain was an azurescens or cubensis. As you can see from some of the outdoor pics, it looks a lot like an azure, but it grows like a cubensis, it loves warm temperatures. Rumor has it this strain was being handed out by P. Stamets himself, as an azure, at a mushroom conference in Mexico some years back. And as you will see from some of the pics, they do look a lot like huge azurescens, but they are not.
    Update December 2000. We're very happy to bring the Plantasia cub back again. This is one of this authors personal favorites for the experience they provide. They always seem to give me extremely happy thoughts and a huge smile across my face :) as well as those around me. Just a beautiful happy vibe.
    As for growing, they are semi-fast colonizer, fruits are average in size, and very beautiful as you will see from the pics. This strain not only does well in heat, but also in cooler temps outdoors. Enjoy.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „South American“




    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 25-125+ mm in diameter, hemispheric to convex to nearly plane at maturity. Dark red maturing to golden brown. Fine fibrillose veil remnants when young that soon disappear. Flesh white soon bruising bluish green.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed. Grayish coloration in young fruit bodies becoming nearly black in maturity.
    • Stem/Stipe: 150-350+ mm in length. Typically equal, sometimes slightly enlarged at base, sometimes contorted. Yellowish to buff with a reflective sheen, bruising bluish, hollow. Partial veil membranous leaving a persistent membranous annulus that is well dusted with purplish brown spores even before tearing away from the cap.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown, subellipsoid, 13 by 8 micrometers on 4-spored basidia.

    Discussion: Produces some very large mushrooms, and a very heavy spore depositor.
    This strain is a great all around performer! Fast growth and high yielding clusters in the wild. You'll get some monsters from time to time with this strain. Rizomorphic mycelium eager to spread and caps tend to split some and this to be due to the fast growth rate of the fruits. Heavy spore depositor.

    A favorite among many! The spores of this strain can produce one of the fastest growing cubensis out there. High yields, big fruits, an all around winner.

    This strain comes from South America. Quick colonizer that produces mediums sized fruits. One not to miss in any true collector's library.
    The South American strain was originally sold by Spore Chicks from a strain collected in Venezuela.
    It tends to colonize very quickly with a dense pinset.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Syzygy“




    Syzygy was the name of a Spore vendor back in the early days. The person behind this company was apparent Terence McKenna. Below is a copy of there advertisement in the book "Psilocybin: Magic Mushrooms Grower's Guide" by Oss & Oeric.
    A 25year old spore print originating from this company was reincarnated and these spores now circulate under the name "Syzygy". This strain was first donated to the FSRE by Anand.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    © psilosophy 2001-2018



    Psilocybe cubensis „Tasmanian“




    The Tasmanian cubensis is a fantastic mushroom found by BIO on the island of Tasmania just below Australia. Tasmania is a state of Australia, sub-tropical, having 4 seasons. It tends to get very cold their at times, and as -Clyde- found out, this mushroom does very well in cold temperatures outdoors, Our grower -Clyde- did some work with the Tazmanian cubensis and was just ecstatic about this strain of cubensis. He says its extremely fast growing on compost, high yielding, and produces some very large capped beauties as you will see in the pictures. He also gave word people will be very pleased with the sensation within it provides. Not much more to tell on this one yet, its new to us and we haven't seen much talk about it yet on any message boards. -Clyde- thinks people are going to be talking very highly of this strain once it gets around.

    -Clyde- says this is an extremely fast grower. At 80F temps, it colonized 10 lbs of compost in 5 days !! That is very fast. Most other fast strains he says does it in around 10 days. Unfortunately, we only have one picture of it indoors, but what a nice picture it is.
    This is a close up, with a film canister for size comparison.
    Our grower had some fun with the strain outdoors. After the trays of compost started colonizing, the trays were put outdoors in cold temps. The average temp range was a hi of 75F, and a low of 45F. The Tasmania cub still colonized fast, and produces some very beautiful yellowish color cubs.
    Another characteristic our grower likes about the Tasmania cub is its a real good 2nd flush producer. This same outdoor tray above, produced a nice abundance of large capped mushrooms on the 2nd flush as well.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Teonanacatl“




    This strain was observed and collected for the 1st time by Mauritius (founder of the pro-fungi, Brasil) in the Lowland region Careiro, state of Amazonas, Brazil.
    During the rainy season extending from September to May, buffalo breeders bring their pets to farms flooded by the road BR 319 that connects the Careiro Varzea Careiro to Brown. With the end of the rains the animals are transported to other areas. In July of 2008 Mauritius entered a farm and collected a mushroom of the genus Psilocybe cubensis from the buffalo manure.
    The spores of this strain where clean on agar and sectors of mycelium where isolated for 1 year to select the best growing mycelium on rice and corn.
    The name is in reference to the site Teonanacatl.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Thai“




    This strain is sold commercially in the smartshops in The Netherlands as "Thai cubensis". A very nice strain to grow, although the mushrooms themselves are not that big, the huge first flushes make up for this. This strain produces very well and easy. No cold-shocking is required.
    The picture show a some very mature first flush mushrooms grown on sterilised rye cased with peat/lime.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Thai Pink Buffalo KS“




    This particular strain also comes from the beautiful island of Koh Samui, Thailand and was brought to us John Allen. What makes this one so unusual is that it was found in a field that was inhabited by one of the sacred pink buffalo of the island.
    Like the other Thai strains, this one is considered one of the more potent strains of the Psilocybe cubensis variety. It's worth mentioning that these Thai strains are very fast colonizers and tend to produce larger fruitbodies in later flushes rather than the initial ones. Another great strain from Ban Hua Thanon - Koh Samui, Thailand.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Thailand Ban Hua Thanon“




    The scientific name is Ban Hua Thanon, after the island it was first found on. Our Ban Hua Thai is very very easy to cultivate, totally white and looks like an albino - shroom ;)
    While it grows in the same standard temperatures as other members of the PC genus, it has also been known to colonize at as high as 30 degrees Celsius.
    This Mushroom is probably the most beautiful we have to offer!

    source - www.magicmushrooms.org

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Thailand Lipa Yai“




    Another great psilocybe mushroom brought to us by Enthomycologist John Allen from his travels through Thailand. This fantastic species of cubensis was picked in this field in Lipa Yai on the island of Koh Samui, Thailand. And this big beautiful buffalo is one of the benefactors that helps these wonderful mushrooms flourish all over Thailand :) A huge thanks again to John Allen, a.k.a. Mushroom John for taking the time to seek out these mushrooms on his travels and bringing back spore prints.
    This strain of cubensis from Thailand is a another winner. We were hesitant to make available 2 strains from Thailand thinking they might just be the same strain of cubensis that migrated. After growing both strains, the Koh Samui and the Lipa Yai out several times they clearly show many differences and traits and are both exceptional strains of mushrooms worth spreading.
    The Lipa Yai strain is similar to the Koh Samui strain in the fact it is a fast colonizer, is a strong resister to contamination, fruits very easy and fast, and is very potent for a cubensis. The big difference in the 2 is that the Lipa Yai grows taller and produces a lighter cap. The Koh Samui tends to produce smaller, yet very thick stemmed and large caps, while the Lipa Yai grows taller, semi-thick stems, and semi-large cap. Both are excellent strains. The feedback we've received from those who have sampled its spiritual gift, absolutely love this one. Very potent!!! It's no wonder why in Thailand they have the full moon festival every month where thousands gather to eat these sacred mushrooms and experience God-Within together. Looks like its time for a TRIP to Thailand :)

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Thailand Koh Samui“




    Another great psilocybe mushroom brought to us by Enthomycologist John Allen from his travels through Thailand. This beauty was picked in the town of Hua Thanon on the island of Koh Samui. Here is a picture of the field actual field it was picked in.
    A huge thanks again to John Allen, a.k.a. Mushroom John for taking the time to seek out these mushrooms on his travels and bringing back spore prints.
    This strain of cubensis from Thailand is a real winner. Its very resistant to contams, is a very fast colonizing strain and the fastest fruiting strain of cubensis we have seen. It tends to grow some very thick mushrooms with large caps. Although they don't grow real tall, they make up for height in thickness. Some times it tends to grow some nearly shaped mushrooms, but we hear the stranger they grow the more potent they are with this strain :).
    Its potency is phenomenal for a cubensis. We've heard nothing but great reports back from people that have experienced its gift. Many friends have claimed it to be the most potent cubensis they've tried yet, saying they are very "twisted", and asked for these specifically by name the next time they were ready to journey. You'll need to be the judge of that for yourself.Another group of friends have dubbed them "the cloud mushrooms" you'll see what I mean when you enjoy viewing the clouds on these.
    It's no wonder why in Thailand they have the full moon festival every month where thousands gather to eat this sacred mushroom and experience God-Within together.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Thailand KS Lamai Beach“




    Another great psilocybe mushroom brought to us by Enthomycologist John Allen from his travels through Thailand in 2000. This beauty was picked and printed on Lamai Beach on the island of Koh Samui in Thailand. A huge thanks again to John Allen, a.k.a. Mushroom John for taking the time to seek out these mushrooms on his travels and bringing back spore prints.
    This strain of cubensis from Thailand is another winner. Our grower -Clyde- had grown out all the strains from Thailand brought back these last couple of years and we only kept the best ones. After growing it out through several generations, this strains is acting more domesticated and producing some amazing flushes. Although at my discretion to have so many Thailand strains, -Clyde- insisted we spread the spores of this strain as it produces an abundance of mushrooms in a small surface growing area. Colonizing and fruiting speed is average, mushrooms are plentiful, and once again, as with all of our Thailand strains, this one is yet another very potent mushroom for a cubensis. We hope you enjoy it :)
    All of the Thailand strains are quickly becoming The Hawks Eye favorite cubensis.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Transkei“




    This is a Psilocybe cubensis strain from South Africa. It was the first strain of Psilocybe cubensis in wide circulation that originated from the African continent. The original magic mushrooms were collected in January 2002 in Transkei, in the Wild Coast region of South Africa. The magic mushrooms were growing directly on dung in the shade of trees.
    Psilocybe cubensis Transkei magic mushrooms are medium sized and have a pretty solid stem that's a little gnarled. Young magic mushrooms have bright orange/brown caps that later turn very pale to almost white. Combined with the purplish colour from sporulation, these caps take on a unique white/purple/golden pattern. The veil stays connected to the cap for a very long time until it tears, leaving remnants on the stem as well as on the cap. Most Psilocybe cubensis strains have a veil that tears from the cap and stays on the stem. Mycelium on agar grows very rhizomorphic.
    Cultivation is pretty much the same as with other Psilocybe cubensis strains although the formation of overlay and stroma is to be expected. A cold shock does not seem to have any effect on this Psilocybe cubensis strain. Overlay makes watering impossible but the wildly growing mycelium will act as a contamination barrier protecting the substrate. Still magic mushroom yields are substantial and certainly not bad for any Psilocybe cubensis. As magic mushrooms are pulled from the casing they open up the casing layer beneath making watering possible again. Magic mushrooms show extreme bluing when bruised.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Various grain types, compost, pasteurised dung/straw
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 28-30°C / 23-26°C
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    Psilocybe cubensis „Tulum“




    The variety Tulum, is not exactly a Mexican variety of psilocybe, the name came because the Collective SANTOVIAJE, spanish people of fungic and botanic speciallist with a biochemistry, and the help of a Mexican-Spanish shaman and friend, who stay for 1 year living in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico in 1999, trying to make an hybrid... the varieties that was present in that "experiment" was: Psilocybe baeocystis, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe mazateca and Psilocybe cubensis strain Thai Pink Buffalo.
    The result of that experience was a mushroom very potent, although not necessarily a hybrid, and ready for the weather and temperatures more colds like in Europe, and ready too for outdoor grow and little attention. They call the strain Tulum, because the culture grow there and after the strains came to Spain the culture #11 was the best. Initially few persons have the strain and then it spread via Holland...
    Robust and resistant to contaminants. It grows well in Brown Rice. There are reports that under favorable conditions it can give very large fruits.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „White Treasure Coast“




    Well, here it is, a white cubensis. Pretty isn't it? This white cubensis is a substrain of the Treasure Coast Cubensis from Florida. The Treasure Coast Cubensis was brought to us by the grower for the former FMF, that went by Mr. G. He has done some interesting breeding with the TC strain, and it will throw off 4 different substrains. One of them being this very unique white cubensis. We have seen a variety of substrains come from this strain, and most recently several casings of all white albino mushrooms. The white cubensis starts off a very light brown, then changes to the frosted white at about 1 1/2" to 2" tall as it matures. All the substrains of the TC will have a frost look on the caps with, and they are all very potent mushrooms, the white being more potent then the rest for some reason.
    For a long time this mushroom strain has been considered slower then most. The problem was solved by dramatically increasing the spore count in the syringes. It also tends to be fast on rye grain and fast on straw. This one is a very beautiful mushrooms worth checking out.
    Currently all spores being sold of the Treasure Coast Cubensis are from these white albino mushrooms. There is no guarantee you'll see the white substrain, but your chances are much higher from these spores.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Wollongong“




    This strain originates in the Illawarra escarpment near the city of Wollongong, Australia. The Illawarra escarpment is the mountain range west of a narrow coastal plain south of Sydney, enclosing the region known as the Illawarra which stretches from Stanwell Park in the north to Kiama, Gerringong and the Shoalhaven river in the south. The hills of the plateau reach over 400 m and may drop abruptly to the coast.
    The Wollongong strain tends to be very aggressive. The pinset is very even. First and second flush fruits tend to be the largest. What's very remarkable about this strain is the color of the caps, which are a beautiful almond-like color. You can even see the edges of the caps have stripes. Very different from other strains.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe cubensis „Z-strain“




    Some cultivators say is also the Golden Teacher, but is really it's own strain displaying different characteristics than the GT. An aggressive colonizer and prolific fruiter, the Z-strain produces medium to large fruits.
    The original Z-Strain comes from SporeTradingPost for the grazy price of $90.00. This amount of money is way to much for a simple print. Personally I do not believe in his fantasie stock with fantasie hybrides and exclusive prices.
    Most growers even speculate if the Z-strain is indeed a new kid in the mushroom three. It is extreme hard to make hybrides. And very doubtful that one guy produces all those hybrides. The are most likely renamed cubensis strains.

    source - www.fsre.nl

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    Psilocybe acutipilea

    Psilocybe acutipilea (Speg.) Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Deconica acutipilea Speg. (1889)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 7-10 mm diam., globose-conic to conic-papillate, smooth to somewhat striate at the margin, hygrophanous(?), brown to brownish, viscid (?).
    • Gills/Lamellae: Subadnate or sinuate, brownish chocolate with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50 x 1-2 mm, cylindric, hollow, flexuosus, whitish to yellowish, covered by floccose white fibrils (it seems to stain blue when injured).
    • Context: Whitish.
    • Odor: And taste unknown.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (7-) 8-9.5 (-11) x 5-6 (-7) x 4-5 µm, subrhomboid in face view, elliptic or subelliptic in side view, thick walled, brownish yellowish, with a broad basal germ pore.
    • Basidia: Basidia and pleurocystidia not observed (hymenium collapsed) (it is possible that there are no pleurocystidia).
    • Cheilocystidia: 15-28 x 5-8 µm, hyaline, abundant, vesiculose-pyriforme with long neck 8-10 x 1-2 µm, forming a more or less sterile band at the edge of the gill.
    • Subhymenium: And trama brownish yellowish with hyphae collapsed.
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized with hyaline elongated hyphae.

    Habitat: Solitary on humus in subtropical forests. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: BRAZIL, Apiaí (Apiahy), Autumn 1881, Spegazzini 1536 (LPS 38307 type).

    Discussion: This species is close to Psilocybe mexicana Heim and Psilocybe caerulescens Murr., and seems to be intermediate between them. The size of the spores and the cheilocystidia serves to separate Psilocybe acutipilea from the other two species (see Guzmán 1977-B). It is possible that this species has hallucinogenic properties because of its relationship with those mentioned above that they are use by the Mexican Indians as psychotropic fungi.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 226]

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

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    Psilocybe aeruginosa

    Psilocybe aeruginosa (Curtis) Noordel. (1995)


    synonyms:
    Agaricus aeruginosus Curtis 1786
    Pratella aeruginosa (Curtis) Gray 1821
    Stropharia aeruginosa (Curtis: Fries) Quelet (1872)
    Stropharia alpina (M. Lange) M. Lange 1980


    probably nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 2-8 cm broad, convex to campanulate, soon expanding to broadly convex, often with a low, broad umbo. Dark bluish green, sometimes fading with maturity. Surface viscid when wet and covered with a bluish green, separable gelatinous pellicle. Margin even, adorned with whitish flecks, remnants from the partial veil. Flesh thin, whitish, thicker towards center.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnately attached, broad, fawn to clay brown in color, sometimes tinged purplish, with white edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-80 mm long by 3-12 mm thick, nearly concolorous with cap, equal, flared towards the apex, and swelled at the base. Surface covered with whitish patches. Partial veil membranous, leaving a fragile, membranous annulus on the superior regions of the stem, which is whitish above and bluish green below, sometimes disappearing in age.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark vinaceous purple brown to purple black in deposit, 7.5-9 by 4.5-5 µm, ellipsoid, thick-walled with a central germ pore.
    • Cheilocystidia: lageniform-capitate and bluntly capitate, 40-55 by 10-12.5 µm.
    • Pleurocistidia: Mucronate, clavate, 40-60 by 10-15 µm.

    Habitat: Widespread throughout the British Isles, northern Europe, and in western North America, on wood debris, in gardens, parks, and occasionally along grassy areas at the edge of woodlands. In the Pacific Northwest this mushroom grows beneath conifers and in the South-west under aspens. In southern California, it can be found under oak.

    Comment: Activity suspected but not known. A spectacularly beautiful mushroom, Psilocybe aeruginosa is listed in most books as a Stropharia. Noordeloos (1995) proposed a new combination, placing this mushroom, more appropriately, into the genus Psilocybe, following the suggestions of Alexander Smith (1979). This mushroom has historically been reported as poisonous, perhaps because of its psilocybin content. (Some books still report it is poisonous, without providing elaboration or references.) Analyses of specimens from Washington found no psilocybin or psilocin (Beug and Bigwood 1982b). I know people who have eaten this species with no effects. In Europe, it is thought to be edible. Since the consumability of this species is questioned, caution is advised until the biochemistry of this species is studied further. See also Psilocybe caerulea (= Stropharia caerulea).

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

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    Psilocybe allenii

    Psilocybe allenii Borov., Rockefeller & P.G.Werner (2012)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe cyanofriscosa
    Psilocybe cyanofranciscana nom. prov.



    DESCRIPTION 1

    Description: Psilocybe allenii was described as new to science in 2012 by Jan Borovička, Alan Rockefeller, and Peter G. Werner. Borovička received material collected from Seattle, Washington, which he noted was microscopically similar to Psilocybe cyanescens, but lacked the wavy cap margins characteristic of that species. In previous publications, Borovička had noted that both macro- and microscopic characters of certain Psilocybe species were highly variable, which could also account for the differences observed in the Seattle material. However, DNA sequencing revealed a 5-base pair change in the internal transcribed spacer regions (a segment of RNA often used in molecular phylogenetics to identify or distinguish fungal species) between Psilocybe cyanescens and the Seattle collections. This difference, in addition to the readily observable macroscopic differences, was deemed sufficient to warrant describing the taxon as a new species. Additional molecular studies published by Borovička and colleagues in 2015 identified Psilocybe azurescens, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe weraroa, Psilocybe cubensis, and Psilocybe serbica as closely related to Psilocybe allenii.
    For several years before its official description, the taxon was known in the San Francisco Bay Area, and suspected of being an undescribed species. The authors suggest that a color photograph of "Psilocybe cyanescens" in David Arora's popular 1986 guidebook Mushrooms Demystified may actually depict Psilocybe allenii. Mycologist Paul Stamets suggested in 2005 that it "probably is new, or least a newly imported species". It is commonly called "Psilocybe cyanofriscosa" in the online mycological community, but this name is grammatically incorrect Latin and has never been validly published in scientific literature. The specific epithet allenii honors John W. Allen, who collected the original material and provided the impetus for the study. Allen collected the type material from the University of Washington Campus in November of 2009. He first collected the fungus in Capitol Hill in 1982, and several times later from Seattle. Some of these collections he sent to Mexican Psilocybe specialist Gastón Guzmán, who initially thought them to be Psilocybe cyanescens because of their overlapping spore size ranges. Fruitbodies of Psilocybe allenii are variable in size, depending on the substrate in which they grow.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.5-9 cm (0.6-3.5 in) in diameter, and range from broadly convex to flattened, sometimes with a slight depression in the center. The cap margin is either straight and slightly curved inward, rarely slightly wavy, and sometimes has radial grooves in moist specimens. The surface is smooth, sticky when moist, with a gelatinous cap cuticle that can be peeled. Wet fruitbodies are so slippery that they are difficult to collect. Caps are hygrophanous, and so will change color depending on how moist they are. They are pale orange brown to caramel brown when moist, but dry to yellowish-buff.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Gills have an adnate to sinuate attachment to the stipe, and are initially cream to pale gray brown, but become dark purple as the spores mature.
    • Stem/Stipe: The cylindrical, hollow stipe typically measures 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) long by 0.2-0.7 cm (0.1-0.3 in) thick, with the base slightly thicker. The top of the stipe is pruinose (covered with white powdery granules), while the base is connected to thick white rhizomorphs. The stipe surface is smooth to silky fibrillose (as if made of silky, slender fibers), and its color initially white before yellowing slightly in age. Mycelium at the base of the stipe is white or stained blue. All parts of the fruitbody stain blue if bruised or handled. Young specimens have a white partial veil that later disappears, or remains as a zone on the stipe that can be colored purplish brown by spores.
    • Odor: And taste of the mushroom is farinaceous-similar to freshly ground flour.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spore prints are dark brown, sometimes with violet shades. Spores are thick-walled with an apical pore, and elongated ellipsoid to equilateral in face view, and somewhat inequilateral in side view, typically measuring 12.0-12.6-13.1 by 6.8-7.1-7.4 µm.
    • Basidia: The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are cylindrical, four-spored with sterigmata up to 5.5 µm long, and have dimensions of 27-37 by 9-11 µm. Clamp connections are present in hyphae.
    • Cheilocystidia: Cheilocystidia (cystidia on the gill edge) are abundant. They are hyaline (translucent), thin-walled, and variably shaped, and range from narrow clubs to narrow flasks with a neck no longer than 8 µm; their dimensions are typically 20-30 by 6-8 µm.
    • Pleurocistidia: The pleurocystidia (found on the gill face) are common; they are broadly club-shaped but taper to a point (sometimes with a rounded tip at the end), and measure 25-35 by 9-14 µm.
    • Caulocystidia: Caulocystidia (found on the stipe) are also present, with variable shapes similar to the cheilo- and pleurocystidia.

    Notes: The mushrooms are consumed for their psychoactive properties, and have a potency roughly similar to Psilocybe cyanescens. Borovička and colleagues say they are "commonly sought out by some mushroom hunters" According to Rockefeller, "If you go to Golden Gate Park in December you will see hundreds of hippies looking at the wood chip landscaping for Psilocybe cyanescens and Psilocybe allenii."
    Several Psilocybe species have an appearance roughly similar to Psilocybe allenii, but these can usually be distinguished by differences in morphology or distribution. The European species Psilocybe serbica var. moravica has a similar cap and stipe, but is generally more slender than Psilocybe allenii. The closely related Psilocybe cyanescens is indistinguishable by microscopic characteristics, but features a wavy cap in maturity, a longer fruiting season (from late September through April), and lacks a ring zone on the stipe often seen in Psilocybe allenii. Psilocybe azurescens has a broader cap, an umbo that may be broad or acute, a longer stipe up to 20 cm (7.9 in), and a growing season similar to that of Psilocybe cyanescens. The authors also note that the Australian Psilocybe subaeruginosa is similar (including three taxa that have since been synonymized: Psilocybe australiana, Psilocybe eucalypta, and Psilocybe tasmaniana) but suggest that further research is required to better understand the delimitation of this species complex.

    Habitat: Psilocybe allenii is found in the northwestern North America, with a range extending from British Columbia south to Los Angeles, California. It is most common in areas up to 10 miles (16 km) from the Pacific coast, although it has been collected 100 miles (160 km) inland. Fruitbodies grow scattered, in groups, or (more rarely) in clusters, on woody debris, such as wood chips often used in landscaping. Favored substrates include hardwood mulches made of oak, eucalyptus, Douglas fir, and alder. Fruiting occurs in cold weather, generally from late September to January. The species can be readily cultivated on agar, grain spawn, and cellulosic material, including wood chips and sawdust.

    source - www.wikipedia.org



    DESCRIPTION 2

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 2-4.5 cm broad, convex or bell shaped; margin striate; surface smooth, sticky when moist, hygrophanous, brown, hygrophanous fading to yellow-brown or buff; flesh thin, brittle in age, bruising blue.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to seceding, close when young, subdistant in age, pale cinnamon brown, becoming dark grey-brown, edges lighter than the faces, mottled from spores at maturity.
    • Stem/Stipe: 3-6 cm tall, 3-6 mm thick, equal to sometimes enlarged at the base, the latter with conspicuous thickened mycelium (rhizomorphs); surface white, smooth to silky, bruising blue; veil fibrillose, forming a superior, evanescent hairy, annular zone.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Purple-brown to purple-gray or purple-black; Spores 9-13 x 6-9 µm, elliptical, smooth, with an apical pore.

    Season: Much Like Psilocybe cyanescens they prefer the cold temperatures of fall and usually are found late September into December, and October through January in California.

    Habitat: Much like Psilocybe cyanescens they like the mulch and wood chipped areas. "Being a bit south helps (Tacoma and south Washington)" (NeoSporen). They are largely seen in the San Francisco Bay area of California where they get their name from.

    Blueing: Bruising when handled. Especially in the cap margin.

    Dosage:
    • Lvl. 1 - 0,4g
    • Lvl. 2 - 0,8g
    • Lvl. 3 - 1,3g
    • Lvl. 4 - 2,1g
    • Lvl. 5 - 2,8g


    Notes: In the book Mycelium Running by Paul Statements it says "microscopically, they seem identical to Psilocybe cyanescens, leading me to believe that these are probably Psilocybe cyanescens, and that this species is simply highly variable in macromorphology".
    This species has been very well documented by amateur mycologists, however it has not been officially described and thus has no scientifically accepted species name at this time.
    The nic name "Cyanofriscosa" was coined by a member of the website www.Shroomery.org a couple years ago when other Bay Area hunters began finding them. Other common names have been used to describe this mushroom, such as the "Cyclone Psilocybe", coined by Paul Stamets due to an instance in which the mycelial pattern of an agar culture looked like a spiral.

    source - www.shroomery.org

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

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    Psilocybe alutacea

    Psilocybe alutacea Y.S. Chang & A.K. Mills



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-13 mm broad, conical or convex, subviscid, hygrophanous, glabrous, striate, leathery brown to ochraceous brown.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, semi, grayish brown, at times slightly unevenly colored, with white edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-46 mm x 1-2.5 mm, cylindrical, stuffed, pale brown, fibrillose bluing occasionally where damaged.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 11.7-15.8 (-16.7) x 7.9-9.2 µm, ellipsoidal, germ pore distinct, broad.
    • Basidia: 25.8-34.2 x 9.2-12.1 µm, 4-spored, hyaline, obovate or clavate.
    • Cheilocystidia: 22.5-35.9 (-44.2) x 5-10 µm, hyaline, long-necked, 6.7-15 µm.
    • Pleurocistidia: Rare, 17.5-30.4 x 4.6-10 µm, lageniform, long-necked.
    • Subhymenium: Subcellular.
    • Trama: Regular, pale brown (5% KOH), with hyphae 3.3-15 µm broad.
    • Epicutis: A layer of subgelatinised, encrusted hyphae with brown pigments, 2.5-5 µm broad, clamped.

    Season: From when the fall rains begin until the first freezes. Liberty caps like cool temperatures, around 50 degrees Fahrenheit and lots of rain.

    Habitat: Solitary to subgregarious on cow dung Reported from Western Australia, New Zealand, but was described in Tasmania. "Predominantly on nutrient-poor grasslands and pastures (Noordeloos 1999, p. 45), rarely on dung, in contrast to the new species. Mating crosses between isolates of Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe alutacea always produced negative pairings." Y. S. Chang, G. M. Gates and D. A. Ratkowsky Some new species of the Strophariaceae (Agaricales) in Tasmania. Australasian Mycologist 24, 53-68

    Notes: This species shares many macro and micromorphological characteristics with Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe alutacea appears to be close to the blueing temperate dung loving species, It has been put into section Semilanceatae by Dr. Guzmán.

    source - www.shroomery.org

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

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    Psilocybe angustispora

    Psilocybe angustispora A.H. Sm. (1946)


    synonyms:
    Deconica angustispora (A.H. Smith) Ram.-Cruz & Guzmán


    probably nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.2-0.6 cm broad. Acutely conic to conic-campanulate. Margin decorated at first with whitish, fibrillose remnants of the veil. Dark reddish brown when moist, fading to pale pinkish tan in drying. Surface smooth and viscid from a thick gelatinous separable pellicle.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment subdecurrent, distant to subdistant, broad. Becoming dark purple-brown in age with the edges whitish fringed.
    • Stem/Stipe: 10-20(40) mm long by 0.5-2 mm thick. Equal, flexuous. Pallid pinkish tan or nearly concolorous with the cap. Surface covered with pallid fibrils and the lower portions often with minute fibrillose scales. Partial veil thin, cortinate. base usually adorned with tufts of mycelium.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, narrowly ellipsoid, 12-15 by 5-8 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: Present.

    Habitat: Single to several on the dung of sheep, cows, horses, elk, marmots, and other animals during the spring and fall. Originally, reported from western Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Colorado. Probably more widely distributed.

    Comment: An uncommon species in need of further study, this petite species is a classically shaped mycenoid Psilocybe. I suspect that it is active, but no one has yet submitted specimens for analysis. See also Psilocybe semilanceata and allies.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe antioquensis

    Psilocybe antioquensis Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, García & Velázquez



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (5-) 10-15 (-30) mm diam, 5-15 (-20) mm high, globose or conic at first to campanulate, or convex. Margin sulcate-striate . Hygrophanous, orange-brown or ochraceo-olivaceous.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to sinuate, pale ochraceous to dark violaceous with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: (40-) 60-124 (-180) x (1-) 1.5-2 )-3) mm (including the pseudorhiza, Hollow, slightly irregularly undulate, equal, subbulbous or attenuated at the base. Whitish to pale or dark ochraceous with grayish fibrils.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (6) 8-10 (-11) x (5-) 6-6.5 (-7) x 5-6 µm. Sporeprint chocolate to purple-brown

    Habitat: Mycenoid, like Psilocybe mexicana without pseudorhiza. Solitary or in small groups, in clay or sandy soil, in meadows with horses, cattle, or Indian Brahman cattle (Bos), and or water buffalo (Bubalus), with leavening grasses, in subtropical humid regions, at 1000-1600 m altitude. In manured ground but not directly from manure.

    Distribution: Currently known only from Antioquia in Colombia; Jalisco and Veracruz in Mexico, and Angkor Wat in Kampuchea (formerly Cambodia). Probably a pantropical species

    Season: Monsoon rainy season from late May through October.

    Dosage: Unknown.

    Comment: Collected from three locations in the Angkor Wat Compound of Cambodia at Banteay Srei (Temple of the Women), 15 km south of Banteay Srei (rice paddie area) and at Banteay Kdei (Citadel of the Cell). This species macroscopically resembles Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe galindii. Psilocybe antioquensis was first reported from Colombia and Psilocybe galindii from Mexico. Both species belong to the section Mexicanae, but differ in the microscopic features. The main feature of these three species is the pseudorhiza which is a subterranean prolongation of the stipe. For more data concerning this species, read John Allen's paper Psilocybe antioquensis.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe aquamarina

    Psilocybe aquamarina (Pegler) Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Stropharia aquamarina Pegler, Kew Bull 1977

    The study of the holotype [Pegler 370 (K), from Africa: Kenya, Central Province, South Nyeri Distr., S side of Ml. Kenya, Castle Forest Station, near Thiba River, on soil] shows a fungus with spores (9-) 9.5-11 (-12) x 6.5-7 (-7.5) x (5-) 5.5-6 µm, subrhomboid in face view and subellipsoid in side view, without pleurocystidia, cheilocystidia (20-) 22.5-34 (-36) x 7-11 (-12) µm, fusoid ventricose or vesiculose submucronate and gelatinized pileus with hyaline hyphae 1.5-2.5 (-3) µm wide. The basidiomata (two) are of the same colour as in P. cubensis, with pileus convex subumbonate and stipe with an annulus persistent. Blue tones are seen in the annulus and in some parts of the stipe. Pegler (1977) related this species to P. aerugineomaculans Hóhnel, which differs in the size of the cheilocystidia, as well as in habitat. The absence of pleurocystidia places this fungus in the genus Psilocybe, and its annulus and possibly a blue reaction relate it to Sect. Stuntzii Guzmán.

    source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 109-110]

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    Psilocybe argentipes

    Psilocybe argentipes K. Yokoy. (1976)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe subcaerulipes Hongo (1958)
    Psilocybe taiwanensis E. Horak, Guzmán i Desjardin
    Psilocybe thaizapoteca Guzmán, Karunar. i Ram.-Guill

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 2.5-5 (6) cm broad. Conic to conic-campanulate at first, soon expanding to convex, broadly convex, and eventually plane in age, and variably with a sharp umbo. Chestnut brown when wet, hygrophanous, fading in drying from disc to a golden brown, honey yellow or mustard brown or clay toned, and bruising bluish. Margin incurved when young, irregular and often wavy, and adorned with remnants of the partial veil, especially when young. Surface smooth but not viscid when moist.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate or adnexed, soon seceding. Grayish orange at first, eventually purple brown with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 60-80 mm long by 2-4 mm thick. Equal, enlarging towards the base from which whitish rhizomorphs radiate. Silky white at first, then yellow toned, soon brownish to reddish brown, and adorned with white fibrillose veil remnants in the lower two thirds of the stem, yellowish brown, and whitish near the apex. Partial veil cortinate, white, and leaving a fragile annular zone on the stem, if at all, and soon disappearing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark violet brown in deposit, subellipsoid, 6.5-7.5 by 9.5 by 3.3-4.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 13-25 (32) by 5-8 µm.

    Habitat: Gregarious to clustered on soil rich in woody debris, along trails, underneath or nearby Cryptomeria japonica, Quercus glauca or Pinus taeda. Known only from Japan

    Comment: Active, according to Koike et al. (1981). This species is named for the silvery patches of fibrils adorning the stem. Psilocybe argentipes is likely to be fairly potent - comparable to Psilocybe cyanescens. This Psilocybe may be distributed outside of Japan. See also Psilocybe azurescens, Psilocybe caerulipes, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa, Psilocybe muliercula, and Psilocybe subaeruginosa.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe atlantis

    Psilocybe atlantis Guzmán, Hanlin & C. White



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 26-38 mm diameter in dried specimens, conic to convex, smooth to slightly striate, dry and pale brown.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Subadnate, thin, brownish, finely mooted and the edges are concolorous.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-45 x 2-4 mm (in dry specimens), equal, subbulbous, and brownish red to grayish-brown, covered with fine small brownish scales towards the base of the stipe. Bluing is evident.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 8-9-10-11 x 5.5-6-6 µm. Yellowish-brown with a broad germ pore. Sporeprint chocolate to purple-brown.

    Habitat: Gregarious on soil.

    Distribution: Known only from the type locality in Fulton County, North of Atlanta, Georgia.

    Season: August.

    Dosage: Unknown.

    Comment: This species belongs to the section Mexicana and is the second species found in Georgia. The name atlantis is for the type locality.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe atrobrunnea

    Psilocybe atrobrunnea (Lasch) Gillet (1878)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe fuscofulva Peck (1887)
    Psilocybe nigrella Peck (1910)
    Psilocybe turficola Favre (1939)


    probably nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 2-4 (6) cm broad. Bluntly conic to convex or campanulate, usually umbonate, sometimes with a sharp nipple, expanding to broadly convex in age. Dark reddish brown to blackish reddish brown, then brown, strongly hygrophanous and fading to pale reddish brown in drying. Surface smooth, translucent-striate near the edge, viscid when moist from a thin but often separable gelatinous pellicle. Margin inrolled to incurved at first, and adorned with whitish veil remnants.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, dull cinnamon brown to dark purplish brown at maturity, with whitish edges, sometimes irregular.
    • Stem/Stipe: 80-180 mm long by 3-5 (6) mm thick. Equal, tough, flexuous, swelling towards the base, which is adorned with whitish mycelium. Reddish to blackish underneath the appressed, fibrillose whitish remnants in the lower two thirds, and pruinose above.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark violaceous brown in deposit, ellipsoid, 9-12 (14) by 5-7 (9) µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent, or close to gill edge, and then similar to cheilocystidia, 30-38 by 4-6 (8) µm.
    • Cheilocystidia: Lageniform or fusoid ventricose with an extended neck, 18-30 (36) by 4-7 µm, and 1.5-2.5 µm thick.

    Habitat: Gregarious to scattered or near sphagnum bogs, in coniferous and deciduous woodlands, fruiting in September and October. Reported from the United States (Michigan and upper New York to Maine), as well as British Columbia and central to northern Europe (Great Britain, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, and Poland). Probably more widely distributed.

    Comment: Possibly active. Høiland (1978) reported psilocybin activity from specimens collected in Norway. No other studies are known to me. This species has an overall resamblance to Psilocybe washingtonensis, Psilocybe physaloides, Psilocybe inquilina, and particularly to several Hypholomas, namely Hypholomas dispersum (=Naematoloma dispersum) and Hypholomas udum (=Naematoloma udum). Its fondness for sphagnum bogs makes that habitat target-specific.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe aucklandiae

    Psilocybe aucklandiae Guzmán, C. C. King & Bandala


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe aucklandii Guzmán, C.C. King & Band.-Muñoz (1991)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.5- 5.5 cm broad. Broadly conic, expanding to broadly umbonate, becoming nearly plane in maturity. Margin striate, upturned, irregular, and splitting in age, free of veil remnants. Dark brown to yellowish brown, hygrophanous, drying to pale yellowish brown to straw colored. Flesh white, bruising bluish in age or where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, grayish yellowish brown, darker, with maturity. Edges whitish.
    • Stem/Stipe: 35-100 mm long by 1.5-5 mm thick, even, pruinose above, covered with whitish, silky fibrils below. Flesh brownish, bruising bluish. Partial veil cortinate, poorly developed, soon disappearing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, ovoid-ellipsoid in side view, ovoid in face view, (6.5) 7-9.5 by 3.5-5.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 13-19 by 4.5-6 µm, scattered, similar to cheilocystidia but with a shorter neck, up to 4.5 µm.
    • Cheilocystidia: 15-32 by 4-8 µm, ventricose-rostrate, with a long flexuous neck up to 12 µm long, often forking.

    Habitat: Common. Grows scattered to gregariously on soil rich in woody debris and litter beneath Leptospermum and Dacrydium and in pine (Pinus radiata). Reported only around Auckland, New Zealand.

    Comment: Estimated to be moderately potent. No analyses are known to me. With the heavy export of lumber and raw logs from the pine plantations of New Zealand, this species has a direct gateway for spreading to many other temperate regions of the world. This species resembles many of the lignicolous Psilocybes. See also Psilocybe makarorae, Psilocybe subaeruginosa, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa, and Psilocybe bohemica.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe australiana

    Psilocybe australiana Guzmán & Watling (1978)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe subaeruginosa Cleland
    Psilocybe tasmaniana Guzmán & Watling (1978)
    Psilocybe eucalypta Guzmán & Watling

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 16-31 mm in diameter, convex to subcampanulate, with slight umbo, hygrophanous, darker at center of cap, fading to pale ochraceous buff to brownish-yellow and blue tinges are evident along the margin.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, with a yellow or dark olivaceous color, becoming purple-brown with age.
    • Stem/Stipe: 45-110 x 2-3 mm, equal and cylindrical, bulbous at the base. Intense bluing in stem after handling.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 10-12-14-16 x 5.5-6.7-7-7.7 x 6.7 µm. Sporeprint chocolate to purple-brown.

    Habitat: Gregarious on humus with woody or leafy debris, on trails and roadsides in Pinus radiata plantations in temperate and subtropical rainforests.

    Distribution: Currently known only from South Australia.

    Season: Fruiting in April and May.

    Dosage: One or two large fresh mushrooms or one dried gram.

    Comment: Very close to Psilocybe subaeruginosa, Psilocybe eucalypta and Psilocybe tasmaniana. Several of these Australian, Tasmanian and New Zealand species noted above are closely aligned and related microscopically with Psilocybe azurescens, Psilocybe allenii and Psilocybe cyanescens from the Pacific Northwestern United States.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe aztecorum

    Psilocybe aztecorum R.Heim (1957)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe mexicana var. longispora Heim (1956)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (5-) 15-20 (-35) mm in diameter, obtuse or convex to campanulate, becoming expanded, striate, hygrophanous, yellowish-brown or yellow-gold in some young button forms not strongly browning. Only the Margin stains slightly blue-green when injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate or adnexed, light violet-gray to dark violet-brown or chocolate-violet.
    • Stem/Stipe: (25-) 55-75 (-95) x (1.5) 3-4 (-5) mm, equal and thicker at the base, straight, staining blue-green when touched or with aging, with rhizomorphs at the base of the stipe.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (10.4) 12-14 (-17) x (6-) 6.7-7.7 (-8.8) x 6-7.5 µm. Elongate-ellipsoid in face view. Blackish-violate.

    Habitat: Gregarious in groups of fruiting bodies of 5-20 specimens, growing on soil with wood debris or on twigs or very rotten logs, rarely on pine cones, in open woods of Pinus hartwegii with abundant grasses at the 3200-4000 m of elevation.

    Distribution: Known only from the high mountains of Central Mexico, such as Sierra Nevada (Rio Frio, Popocatépetl and Paso de Cortés), Nevado de Toluca and La Malinche, in the States of Mexico, Puebla and Tlaxcala.

    Season: This fungus fruits from August through October.

    Dosage: Unavailable.

    Comment: This fungus is employed by the Mexican Indians of the Popocatépetl region, e.g. in the town San Pedro Nexapa. The younger generation of Indian children sell this mushroom to tourists along the wayside road to Popocatépetl and also in Huautla de Jiménez. Two popular Náhuatl names for this species are "niños" and "niñitos." The name Psilocybe aztecorum was given to the species by Roger Heim in that it historically bestows a place of honor as it refers the Aztec priests and their people who employ them ceremoniously. They were known to have used this species long before the Spanish and Portuguese came to the New World. The Language of the Mazatec is Náhuatl, the language of their ancestors; the Olmec's, the Toltec's and their conqueror's, the ancient Aztecs and their cast uncharted Empire. The names "niños" and "niñitos" are used by shaman's and others who participate in all night vigils and veladas, as little boys and little girls. When consumed in a healing and curing ceremony, certain rituals are performed and depending on one's illness or misfortune, the fungi are always eaten in pairs of two and are considered as male and/or female and are always consumed in pairs of two; one male and one female. It also depends on what species are available since each species possess different amounts of psilocin and psilocybin.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe azurescens

    Psilocybe azurescens Stamets & Gartz



    Psilocybe azurescens is probably the most potent psilocybin producing species on earth. Spawn can be grown on rye or birdseed and transferred to sterilised woodchips. Room temperature is fine for growing out spawn. This fully colonised woodchip spawn can be used to inoculate woodchips in outdoor beds.
    Another option is to use grain spawn to inoculate soaked cardboard. Soaked cardboard is a highly selective substrate which can be used without sterilisation or pasteurisation. When the cardboard is colonised it can also be used to inoculate outdoor beds. More colonised cardboard or woodchip spawn results in faster colonisation of the chips in the outdoor bed and increases the chance of success.
    As a substrate for the outdoor beds freshly chipped wood and branches can be used. If pre-packaged wood chips are used it might be necessary to soak them in water for a couple of days before using them. The beds should be made in a shaded place and can be covered with a thin layer of casing soil. Grass planted on top of it helps to keep the moisture content high.
    Beds should start to fruit in the Fall and at that time extra watering might be necessary to keep the moisture content of the bed high. The bed should never be allowed to dry out.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Wood chips.
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 16-24°C / 10-15°C
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    Psilocybe baeocystis

    Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & A.H. Smith



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.5 do 5.5 cm broad to olive. center convex to conic. translucent when moist, appears pleated towards bottom portion of cap. Often staining blue to blue-green when damaged.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attached. Dark purple.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50-70 x 2-3 mm long. White creme to yellow top. Covered with white filaments.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 10-13.2 x 6.2-7 µ. Purple gray.

    Habitat: Psilocybe baeocystis was 1st discovered in Eugene, Oregon in 1945. Once considered rare, this species was a very common mushroom appearing in mulched garden beds under rhododendrons and rose bushes during the late 1970s and early 1980s, sometimes growing in amongst groupings of Psilocybe stuntzii in lawns and with Psilocybe cyanescens in alder mulched garden beds. Although this species grows abundantly some in lawns or grassy areas rich in humus or lignin and/or in alder wood chips and bark mulch, it is sometimes very hard to find.

    Distribution: From Eugene, Oregon to Seattle, Washington, up to British Columbia, Canada. Once considered rare, it is now common.

    Season: June to October in lawns. From late September through December and sometimes into January in mulched garden beds.

    Dosage: 1 to 2 large mushroom specimens or from 2 to 4 small specimens.

    Comment: A very potent species when fresh. Stains intensely blue when damaged. Loses much potency when drying.
    In the mid to late 1960s, two young children, both six years old reportedly died after allegedly consuming Psilocybe baeocystis. However, photographs given to the author by the physcians involved in the subsequent attempted treatment and later death of these children, one in Washington and a second reported death in California, were identified by (John W. Allen) as Psilocybe cyanescens. In both incidents, entire families had also consumed these mushrooms and did not die. Because of this misidentification by the late Chicago mycologist Rolf Singer and Alexander H. Smith who noted the species in their 1958 monograph on the genus Psilocybe, numerous mushroom field guides for both edible and psilocybian mushrooms described it as a very dangerous and toxic mushroom which could cause death. Over the years, few authors have corrected this error in reporting the correct identification of the species as Psilocybe cyanescens.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe banderillensis

    Psilocybe banderillensis Guzmán & Bononi


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe banderiliensis var. paulensis
    Psilocybe banderiliensis Guzmán
    Psilocybe paulensis (Guzmán & Bononi) Guzmán

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 5-12 mm diam., conic campanulate, subumbonate, glabrous, smooth to slightly striate at the margin when humid, subviscid to lubricous, hygrophanus, chocolate brown or reddish brown to darker, in dry blackish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, pale dark violaceous with somewhat whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-50 x 1-1.5 mm, uniform, subsinuous, reddish brown, covered by whitish small floccose scales, hollow, cartilagineus. Veil farinaceous, staining slightly blue. All parts blackish brown in KOH.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5-) 5.5-6.5 (-7) x 5-6 x 4-5 µm, rhomboid in face view but subellipsoid in side view, brownish, thick walled with a broad germ pore. Some spores are irregular in form.
    • Basidia: 15-20 x 5-8 µm, 4-spored, subventricose or subpyriform.
    • Pleurocistidia: 15-32 x 7-12 µm, abundant, hyaline to more commonly brown or reddish brown, sublageniform with short and thick neck or ventricose.
    • Cheilocystidia: 10-25 x 3-5 µm, hyaline, sublageniform, frequently irregularly branched, some are very irregular in form.
    • Subhymenium: Subparenchymatous, with incrusted yellowish brown pigment.
    • Trama: Regular, hyaline to pigmented with incrusted pigment on the walls. Surface of the pileus formed by elongated subgelatinized hyaline, brownish to hyaline hyphae,2-4 µm thick. Hypodermium with elongated to subcellular element, strongly incrusted, 3-6 µm diam. Clamp connections rare.

    Habitat: Gregarious on bare soil in a trail of the subtropical (or mesophytic) fores. Fruiting in November.

    Studied material: BRAZIL, Sao Paulo State, Mpio. de Cananéia, Ilha do Cardoso, Col. Guzmán 22960, November 18, 1982 (SP-177707 type) (XAL-Isotype).

    Discussion: The form of the pleurocystidia, as well as the abundance, and the irregular form of the cheilocystidia, as well as the southern locality, are the features that separates this variety from the type, which is know only from the State of Veracrus, Mexico (Guzmán, 1978; 1983). These fungi belong to the Section Brunneocystidiatae Guzmán, distinguished by their brown pleurocystidia. All of them seem to be hallucinogenic mushrooms.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [19: 347]

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    Psilocybe bohemica

    Psilocybe bohemica ©ebek (1983)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe serbica M.M.Moser & E.Horak (1969)
    Psilocybe arcana Borov. & Hlavácek (2001)
    Psilocybe moravica Borov. (2003)

    This European species is closely related to North American Psilocybe cyanescens (which is also spreading throughout Europe). Psilocybe cyanescens cap is not translucent-striate when moist, its lamellae are adnexed or narrowly attached, the veil connecting the pileal margin with the stipe more distinct. It grows in the same sites. Rare. Sporocarps solitary or gregarious. On well decayed deciduous and coniferous wood, on twigs, compost, plant residue, in gardens, parks, on roadsides, in rich places, ruderaly.

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    Psilocybe brasiliensis

    Psilocybe brasiliensis Guzmán (1978)



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-3 cm broad. Conic at first, soon convex and eventually campanulate. Surface smooth, viscid when moist, and translucent striate along the cap margin. Reddish brown to brown when moist, hygrophanous, fading to light brown upon drying, becoming bluish in age or where damaged.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, brownish to purplish brown, with whitish margins.
    • Stem/Stipe: 35-80 mm long by 1-4 mm thick, equal to slightly swelling at the base, which is usually adorned with whitish fibrils and/or rhizomorphs. Bruising bluish where injured.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark grayish violet in deposit, subrhomboid to subellipsoid, 5.5-7.7 by 4.2-5.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored
    • Pleurocistidia: 22-29 by 8.8-12 µm, fusoid-ventricose to sublageniform.
    • Cheilocystidia: 9.6-13 na 5-7.2 µm, lageniform.

    Habitat: Gregarious on grassy soils (Axonopus compresus) in forest of Araucaria brasiliana and Podocarpus. Known only from Brazil, near Sao Paulo, in March at approximately 1500 meters. Not yet reported outside this type locality.

    Comment: Apparently active, Guzmán (1983) first discovered Psilocybe brasiliensis, and lists it under the psilocybin-producing varieties because of the bluing reaction. The general shape is reminiscent of some of the temperate Psilocybes like Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa. Being a grassland species, this mushroom is likely to be widespread and is a good candidate for cultivation in tropical environments. I think if more Brazilians were aware of this species, its range of dominion would be better documented. See also Psilocybe aztecorum, Psilocybe baeocystis, and Psilocybe mexicana.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe brunneocystidiata

    Psilocybe brunneocystidiata Guzmán & Horak



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (3-) 9-40 diam., conical (when young) to convex or expanded but always with sharp conical papilla, hygrophanous, brown to yellowish brown or stramineous, dry, smooth except of white dense fibrillose squamules from the veil, striate towards the margin.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Lamellae broadly adnate to subdecurrent, distant, beige to cocoa brown, edge albofimbriate.
    • Stem/Stipe: 10-40 x 1-2 mm, cylindrical, equal, central, flexuos, dry, hollow, fragile, concolorous with pileus, covered with white squamules from the veil, forming fibrillose subannulus, apex pruinose.
    • Context: Pale brown in pileus and stipe.
    • Odor: And taste subfarinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spore print dark brown. (5-) 6-6.5 (-7) x 5.5-6 x 3.8-4.5 µm, subrhombic (dorsoventral) or subelliptical (lateral), yellowish brown (KOH), broad flattened germ pore present, smooth.
    • Basidia: 18-24 x 4.5-6 µm, hyaline (KOH), subvesiculose, occasionally with median constriction, 4-spored, sterigma 2-4 (-7) µm long.
    • Pleurocistidia: 20-33 x 6.5-9 (-11) µm, hyaline but some brownish (KOH), ventricose-papillate, apical papilla 2-3.5 µm diam.
    • Cheilocystidia: 10-20 x 3-5 µm, 1-2.5 µm at apex, hyaline (KOH), polymorphous (ventricose-rostrate, clavate, strangulate or mucronate), forming sterile band along gill edge.
    • Subhymenium: Of irregular cells, conspicuously encrusted with yellow (KOH) pigment.
    • Trama: Regular, consisting of elongate cylindrical hyphae 4.5-8 µm, diam., pigmented like subhymenium.
    • Epicutis: A cutis of more or less gelatinized cylindrical hyphae, encrusted with yellow pigment. Subcuticular hyphae like those of the trama. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious or cespitose on rotten wood in subtropical forests. Known hosts Castanopsis acuminatissima and Nothofagus spp. Reported from Papua New Guinea only. 500-2000 m a. s. l.

    Studied material: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, Morobe district: Bulolo, Manki; 13. III. 1972, leg. HORAK (Holotype ZT, 27/212; isotype ENCB) - Bulolo, Heads Hump; 2. XI. 1971, leg. HORAK (ZT, 71/226).

    Discussion: This fungus is closely related to the hallucinogenic and lignicolous Psilocybe yungensis SINGER & SMITH described from Bolivia (SINGES & SMITH, 1958) and reported also from Mexico (HEIM & WASSON, 1958); furthermore it is close to Psilocybe mammillata (Murill) SMITH, a native species from Jamaica (MURILL, 1918). Psilocybe brunneocystidiata a differs from the before mentioned two taxa in the brown pleurocystidia and in the well developed veil remnants forming the distinct subpersistent subannulus. Obvious relationships also can be traced to several species recently described by GUZMÁN (1977) from tropical forests in Mexico (Psilocybe naematolomiformis, Psilocybe singerii, Psilocybe uxpanapensis and Psilocybe weldenii). All these Mexican species have brown pleurocystidia but are separated from Psilocybe brunneocystidiata by different cheilocystidia. From the taxonomical point of view brown coloured pleurocystidia as observed in some tropical species are considered as a primitive character in Psilocybe (Guzmán 1977).

    source - www.sydowia.at [31: 45-47]

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    Psilocybe caerulea

    Psilocybe caerulea (Kreisel) Noordel. (1995)


    synonyms:
    Stropharia caerulea Kriesel
    Stropharia cyanea (bolt. ex. Secr) Tuomikoski


    probably nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 3-7,5 cm broad, convex, soon expanding to broadly convex, obtusely umbonate. Color bluish, fading to azure, then yellow to yellowish green, often with the margin remaining tinged bluish green. Viscid when wet from a separable gelatinous pellicle. Fragments of the partial veil sometimes present along cap margin. Cap flesh thin, bluish at first, fading to straw color.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to subdecurrent, close, fawn brown to chocolate brown to dark brown with spore maturity, with paler edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-110 mm long by 3-12 mm thick, equal to slightly enlarged near the base, bluish green to azure, becoming pale buff. Pruinose above the annulus and covered with fibrillose-floccose scalelike patches below. Partial veil membranous, leaving a fragile, membranous annulus sometimes degrading into an annular zone.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Light to purplish brown in deposit, ellipsoid, 7-9 (10) by 4.5-5.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Cheilocystidia: And pleurocystidia 28-55 by 10-16 µm, 2-4 at the apex, clavate-mucronate to fusiform or slightly lageniform with acute apices.

    Habitat: A litter mushroom, thriving in garden-like habitats or soils enriched with manure. Widely distributed, reported from the British Isles, Europe, and northwestern North America.

    Comment: Possibly mildly active. No chemical analyses are known to this author. This species differs from its close relative, Psilocybe aeruginosa, in its rapidly discoloring cap, the paler gills, and the lack of veil-formed scales on the cap surface, and its generally smaller stature. In Europe Psilocybe caerulea is more common than Psilocybe aeruginosa (= Stropharia aeruginosa). See also Psilocybe pseudocyanea (= Stropharia pseudocyanea).

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe caeruleoannulata

    Psilocybe caeruleoannulata Sing. ex Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Stropharia siccipes Karst. var. lugubris Rick, Lilloa 4:83, 1939

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-22 mm diam., convex or conical to papillate, smooth, transparently striate at the margin when moist, viscid, hygrophanous, reddish brown to faded sordid pallid chamois with brownish buff to alutaceous center; pellicle separable.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Sinuate-adnate or subadnate, grayish violet but with whitish edges when young.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-45 x 1-2 mm, whitish from a silky appressed covering over a gray background, becoming grayish cinereous where touched: at base soon caesious, slightly and gradually tapering upwards. Veil well formed; annulus membranous but thin, smooth, white, slightly staining blue, fragile but usually persistent.
    • Context: Pallid in pileus, grayish to brownish in stipe.
    • Odor: None or slightly farinaceous; taste slightly farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spore print deep violaceous. (8.8-) 9.9-11 (-12) x 6-6.6 (-7.1) x 5.5-6 µm, subrhomboid frontally, subelliptic in profile, yellowish brown, smooth, more or less thin walled but with complex wall and with broad truncate germ pore.
    • Basidia: 15-22.4 x 7.5-9.8 µm, four-spored, hyaline, subvesiculose.
    • Pleurocistidia: None.
    • Cheilocystidia: 17-20 x 5-6 µm, forming a sterile band on the edge of the gill, hyaline, lageniform or vesiculose-ventricose, the neck 5-8.5 x 1-2 µm, sometimes with an oily hyaline drop at the apex.
    • Subhymenium: With parallel, brownish, thin (4 µm diam.) hyphae.
    • Trama: Regular, brownish or hyaline, with chestnut incrusted hyphae, 12-20 µm, thin walled. Clamp connections present.
    • Hypodermium: With interwoven brownish hyphae which are broader on the average than those of the epicutis, not subcellular, but in the context below often more pigmented and darker, more irregular and with quite a few rather short elements.
    • Epicutis: Hyaline, 50-60 µm thick layer of strongly gelatinized hyaline, filamentous hyphae 0.5-2.2 µm thick.

    Habitat: On marshy ground or in grasslands outside the forests of Araucaria and Podocarpus, in pasture land, sometimes on dung. Known from Brazil and Uruguay.

    Studied material: BRAZIL, State of Sao Paulo, near Campos de Jardao, March 8, 1971, 1600 m elevation, Guzmán 8877 (ENCB; SP). Guzmán 8916 (ENCB; SP). Santa María, 1936, Rick (PACA 15234, Type of Stropharia siccipes var. lugubris Rick). Sao Leopoldo, 1934, Rick (PACA 9362, as Stropharia inucta). Without locality: Rick (Herb. Bresadola 287; NY, as Stropharia luteonitens). URUGUAY, Maldonado, May 27, 1966, Singer B-4172 (BAFC Holotype).

    Discussion: Psilocybe caeruleoannulata is close to Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & Ott and Psilocybe uruguayensis Sing. ex Guzmán, but differs in the shorter cheilocystidia (Psilocybe stuntzii has cheilocystidia 22-27.5 µm a Psilocybe uruguayensis 24.5-32 µm. This species was named by Singer in the herbarium BAFC based on the collection from Uruguay. Later the author of the present paper collected the same fungus in Brazil and found the species in the herbarium PACA as Stropharia siccipes Karst. var. lugubris Rick, a variety described in 1939 but not considered in Rick's later papers (1961); this material agrees well with the type of Psilocybe caeruleoannulata; the variety of Rick is considered synonymous. Bresadola confused Psilocybe caeruleoannulata with Psilocybe luteonitens (Vahl ex Fr.) Parker-Rhodes, as the author noted in one of Rick's collections (NY), identified by Bresadola as Psilocybe luteonitens, but this species has spores 15.4-18.7 (-20) x 11-13.2 x 9.9-11 µm.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 235-236]

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    Psilocybe caerulescens

    Psilocybe caerulescens Murrill


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe caerulescens var. albida
    Psilocybe caerulescens var. mazatecorum
    Psilocybe mazatecorum
    Psilocybe caerulescens var. nigripes

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 2.5 to 9 cm. Deep green to black cinnamon to rust. Cone shaped when young expanding to age. Margin incurved in young. Hygrophanous.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Close. Light cinnamon to brown. light to dark in age. Edges white.
    • Stem/Stipe: 3.5 to 10 cm. Long. Creme colored. Hollow with fiberous hairs, veil falls off early in young stages.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Ellipsoid. Sporeprint dark purplish brown in deposit.

    Habitat: Gregarious to cespitose, rarely solitary and often in clusters and clumps. On disturbed grounds devoid of herbaceous plants. Prefers mudslides and orange brown soils.

    Distribution: Alabama, Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil.

    Season: Late spring and summer months.

    Dosage: 1-7 fresh mushrooms.

    Comment: Paul Stamets mentions in his field guide, "Psilocybine Mushrooms of the World" that R. Gordon Wasson first ate 13 pairs of this mushroom during his initial velada with Maria Sabina. However, it was actually seven pairs of mushrooms. Timothy Leary also consumed this mushroom in 1960 in Cuernavaca, Mexico. He was given 7 fresh specimens of Psilocybe caerulescens his friend and associate, anthropologist Frank Baron. This species was first discovered and identified from Huntsville, Alabama in 1924 by the mycologist Murrill and never seen in the United States of America until the early 1990s in Florida and Mississippi. Later in the late 1950s, R. Gordon Wasson and Roger Heim identified it as the Derumbe (Landslide) mushroom of the Mazatec Indians. It has been reported from Oaxaca, Mexico fruiting from sugar cane mulch and landslide areas along sugar cane roads. Many Identification guides list this species as occurring in the southeast states of Mississippi to Georgia and Florida.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe caerulipes

    Psilocybe caerulipes Peck


    synonyms:
    Agaricus caerulipes

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-35 mm in diameter, brown with a sticky surface when moist, bluing where damaged.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-60 mm, white to buff, brown at the base with an evanescent partial veil, bluing where damaged.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, close to crowded, brownish.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 7-10 x 4-5.5 µm, elliptical and smooth. Sporeprint chocolate to purple-brown.

    Habitat: Woodchips and beauty bark in man-made gardens in public places.

    Distribution: Georgia to Massachusetts in the north and west to Ohio and north to Michigan and southern Ontario.

    Season: Late May through August into September.

    Comment: Psilocybe caerulipes is unique in that it is the only active Psilocybe native to the NE United States. It is a wide ranging species but uncommonly found. The Bethany strain reportedly fruits in both the spring and fall. In deciduous forests on hardwood slash and debris, plant matter, on or about decaying hardwood logs, birch, beech and maple. It is often overlooked as just another little brown mushroom, and although widely distributed, it is not found often. It is sometimes confused with the larger Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe caribaea

    Psilocybe caribaea Guzmán, T. J. Baroni & Tapia



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (17-) 35-60 (-70) mm diam, convex-umbonate becoming plane with a mammillate-papillate umbo, smooth, lubricous; margin even, translucent-striate or slightly sulcate-striate, yellowish brown (5DE5-8) to dark reddish brown (8E-F5-6), chocolate brown (6F4) or Verona Brown, or dark grayish brown (5D-F3) mainly on the umbo, hygrophanous, changing to beige or pale brownish-yellow.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Sinuate, pale brown or violaceous brown (11F4-6), margin even or somewhat fimbriate, pallid or concolorous.
    • Stem/Stipe: (20-) 80-130 (-175) 3 3-6 (-8) mm, hollow, equal with a bulbous base, sordid white, becoming pale brown or yellowish brown (5D-E5-8) or reddish brown (8E5-7) or fuscous reddish toward the apex, shiny or dull, silky, covered with fibrillose appressed white fibrils toward the base, texture tough-cartilaginous or subwoody, with rhizomorphs at the base, inserted up to 1/4 of the total length.
    • Context: Both in pileus and stipe whitish, or reddish-brown in the base of the stipe. All parts except lamellae strongly caerulescent when cut or touched.
    • Odor: Farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spore print Dark Violaceous Brown. (6-) 6.5-7.5 (-8) x 5-5.5 (-6.5) x 4.5-5 µm (Q = 1.25), subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, thick-walled, walls up to 1 µm thick, yellowish-brown, with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: (16-) 20-25 (-28) x 5-6 (-7) µm, 4-sterigmate, hyaline, vesiculose, with a median constriction.
    • Pleurocistidia: (9,5-) 12-17 (-20) x (3,5-) 5-8 (-12) µm, hyaline, subventricose, subfusoid or subcylindric-moniliform, with an acute apex or short neck.
    • Cheilocystidia: (16-) 18-30 (-37) x (4-) 5-8 (-9.5) µm, hyaline, subventricose, irregularly branched, with an acute apex or with a short neck.
    • Subhymenium: Very thin, subcellular, with hyaline to yellowish elements, 3-6 (-8) µm, wide, finely encrusted.
    • Trama: Regular, most hyphae hyaline, cylindrical or with some elements inflated, 3-24 µm wide, with fine, inconspicuous encrustations.
    • Epicutis: A subgelatinized layer 8-40 µm thick, composed of repent, hyaline hyphae, 2.5-7 µm diam.
    • Pileocystidia: 25-43 3 6-8 µm occasional, prostrate or erect.
    • Hypodermium: With both hyaline cylindrical hyphae and subglobose elements, 2-15 µm wide, with encrusted walls. Context composed of hyaline or yellowish hyphae, some inflated and becoming subglobose, 3-24 µm wide, thin or thick-walled, up to 1 µm thick. Clamp connections common.

    Habitat: Gregarious or caespitose on rich organic or sandy soil, mixed with decaying plant debris, in tropical and subtropical forests. Known only from Puerto Rico.

    Studied material: PUERTO RICO, Mun. Naguabo, Luquillo Mountains, trail from Río Icacos to Río Prieto Dam, 4 Oct 1999, Laboy (PR-5772) (CFMR). Tradewinds Trail, 25 Jun 1995, Lodge, Barley & Wunderle (PR-2669) (CFMR), Lodge, Barley & Wunderle (PR-2671) (CFMR). Mun. Río Grande, Caribbean National Forest, El Yunque, Caimitillo Trail, 29 Jun 1996, Baroni 7971 (HOLOTYPE CORT; ISOTYPE XAL). Mun. Río Grande, Luquillo Mountains., La Mina Recreation Area, Mount Britton Trail, 23 May 2000, Cantrell & Salgado, ledger Cantrell PR-0022 (PR-6170) (UPRRP). MARTINIQUE, Vallée du Lorrain, Nov 1974, Fiard 87 (K(M): 84377); 4 Jun 1975, Fiard 87C (K(M): 84376). Between Gran Riniere and Anse Ceron, 17 Jan 1982, Fiard 1503 (K(M): 84375).

    Discussion: Pegler (1983) considered collections of this species from Martinique to be Psilocybe caerulescens. However, even though Psilocybe caerulescens is a member of section Cordisporae, it lacks pleurocystidia and is easily separated from Psilocybe caribaea, which has abundant pleurocystidia.
    Psilocybe caribaea is attractive because of its robust basidiomata, which occur in clusters. Its habit is reminiscent of Psilocybe collybiodes Singer & A.H. Smith, but that species has thin-walled ellipsoid basidiospores (Guzmán, 1983). Psilocybe caribaea is most phenetically similar to Psilocybe subtropicalis Guzmán, known from Mexico and Guatemala (Guzmán 1995). However Psilocybe caribaea can be separated from Psilocybe subtropicalis, because it possesses two types of pleuro- and cheilocystidia (recent observations on the holotype by Guzmána and Tapia).
    One specimen, PR-6170, possesses slightly larger basidia 28-37 x 6-7 µm with 1, 2, 3 and 4 sterigmata and slightly longer pleurocystidia (13-) 15-24 (-26) µm. However, the differences observed in this collection appear to be reasonably expected morphological variations for Psilocybe caribaea.

    source - www.mycologia.org [95 (6): 1172-1174]

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    Psilocybe chiapanensis

    Psilocybe chiapanensis Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe yungensis Singer & A.H.Sm. (1958)
    Psilocybe yungensis var. diconica A.H.Smith (1958)
    Psilocybe acutissima Heim (1959)
    Psilocybe isauri Singer (1959)
    Psilocybe subyungensis Guzmán (1978)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: Approx. 10 mm in diam and approx. 13 mm high, campanulate subpapillate, sublubricous, even to slightly striate toward the margin, grayish leather to brownish straw-yellow, hygrophanous.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, brownish violet, uniform in colour.
    • Stem/Stipe: Approx. 40 x 3 mm, cylindric, sinuous, hollow, whitish to reddish brown, covered by floccose appressed white scales, mainly in the middle part. Both pile us and stipe staining blue to blackish where injured.
    • Context: Whitish to concolourous with the pileus.
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (4-) 4.5-5 (5.5) x 4-5 x 3-4 µm, subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, with a thick wall up to 1 µm, brownish yellow, with a broad germ pore at one end and an acute short appendage at the other.
    • Basidia: (12-) 14.5-21 x 5-7 µm, 4-spored, clavate ventricose, hyaline.
    • Pleurocistidia: 11-14.5 (-16) x (4-) 5-6.5 (-7) µm, common, hyaline, ventricose rostrate, with a short apex.
    • Cheilocystidia: Of two types, a) as the pleurocystidia (10.5-) 12-16 (-17.5) x 5.5-6.5 µm, hyaline, and b) (16-) 17-22.5 x 5-8 µm, ventricose, regular or irregularly in form, hyaline.
    • Subhymenium: With globose elements 3-5 µm in diam, hyaline or yellowish.
    • Trama: Regular, formed by yellowish or hyaline hyphae, 3-12 µm wide, thin or thick-walled (up to 1.5 µm).
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized, formed by repent hyphae 2.5-5.5 µm wide, with some hyaline ascending elements, 12-32 x 6-8 µm.
    • Hypodermium: With subglobose elements 4-16 µm in diam, yellowish to yellow-brown, wall up to 1.5 µm thick. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Solitary on logs, in coffee plantations remainding of subtropical cloud (mesophytic) forests. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: MEXICO: State of Chiapas, Region of Tapachula, Municipio Union de Juárez, Ejido Santo Domingo, Oct. 4, 1993, Guzmán 30739 (Holotype, XAL).

    Discussion: This species is close to Psilocybe yungensis Singer & Smith and Psilocybe subyungensis Guzmán by similar pileus form, spores size and the lignicolous habitat, but differs by more abundant pleurocystidia (scanty in those species) and in their size (14-25 µm long in Psilocybe yungensis; 9-11 µm long in Psilocybe subyungensis, and in the size and variability of the cheilocystidia [14-33 (-40) µm long in Psilocybe yungensis; 16,5-25 µm long in Psilocybe subyungensis].

    source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 102-103]

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    Psilocybe chuxiongensis

    Psilocybe chuxiongensis T. Ma & K.D. Hyde



    Description: Differs from related Psilocybe species mainly by the absence of annulus and hemispheric to hemispheric-convex pileus without an umbo or papilla.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 26-38 mm diameter, at first conic or hemispheric-conic with incurved margin, then hemispheric to hemispheric-convex, not umbonate or papillate, dark yellow (4B4; Buff-Yellow) to yellowish brown (4B8; Aniline Yellow), sometimes darker in centre, often becoming paler towards the edge and almost whitish at margin, becoming beige when dry; surface smooth, slightly viscid when moist; margin even, entire, decorated with somewhat fugacious, white to bluing, membranous veil remnants.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate-sinuate, 4-6 mm high, close or subdistant, yellowish waxy-white when young, becoming pale grayish yellow with purple-brown (8E5) mottles when matured, then olive ochre (2C5) to dark brown, edges serrulate and remaining whitish, turning bluish during drying or when handled.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50-68 mm x 3.5-4.5 mm, equal, slightly flexuous, longitudinally striate, hollow and fragile, white with sheen, becoming beige when dry; surface somewhat bluish when touched or bruised, or on drying, covered with white floccose scales which become bluish when touched; base of stipe with white mycelium; annulus absent.
    • Context: Of pileus yellowish (2A3,Celonial Buff). Of stipe concolorous with that of pileus, whitish towards the surface. Some mycelium in centre of colony bluish in culture.
    • Odor: Mild.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (241/5/2) (12-) 13-16 (-19) x (7-) 8-10.5 x 7.5-10 (-11) µm, often ellipsoid, elongate-ellipsoid to subhexagonal, occasionally ovoid, broadly ellipsoid, subrhomboid or subfusiform in face view, Q = (1.4-) 1.5-1.8 (-2.4), Q = 1.63±0.13; ellipsoid, subellipsoid to nearly oblong in side view, Q = (1.4-) 1.5-1.8 (-2.0), Q = 1.65±0.10, yellowish brown with purple tinge in water, yellowish brown in KOH, dark purplish brown in deposit; wall smooth, slightly thick to thick (0.5-1.5 µm), complex, with distinct 1-2 µm wide apical germ pore.
    • Basidia: (24-) 30-44 (-53) x 8-14 µm, hyaline and colourless, occasionally yellowish, clavate to broadly clavate, narrowed in lower half or with a short to very long base 8-26 (-30) µm x 2-6 µm wide, 4-spored, sometimes 2-spored; sterigmata 3-6 (-8) µm.
    • Cheilocystidia: 22-42 (-46) x 5-10.5 µm, hyaline, narrowly clavate, clavate or lageniform-clavate, sometimes lageniform or fusoid-ventricose, occasionally similar to pleurocystidia, but narrower, with a (2-) 3-11 x 1.5-4 µm subcapitate tip or neck, rarely forked.
    • Pleurocistidia: relatively rare and scattered, 24-42 (-48) x (8-) 9-15 µm, thin-walled, hyaline, ventricose to broadly clavate and fusoid-clavate, often narrower near the apex, obtuse to short rostrum (2-4 x 2-4 µm).
    • Caulocystidia: 23-54 x 6-10 (-14) µm, clustered at the upper part of the stipe, thin-walled, hyaline, some of them similar to cheilocystidia, narrowly clavate to lageniform, some oblong-subclavate, with short rounded rostrum, subcapitate apex or neck, 2.5-8.5 (-9.5) x 2-4.5 (-6) µm, sometimes irregularly branched. Clamp connections common in all parts of the basidioma.
    • Subhymenium: Subcellular, composed of irregular vesiculose to subglobose cells, 3-13.5 x 2-12 µm, hyaline, colourless to yellowish, thin-walled to slightly thick-walled (about 0.5 µm).
    • Trama: Regular, with cylindrical hyphae 2-13 µm diam, hyaline, colourless to yellowish, thin-walled to slightly thick-walled (≤ 1,0 µm).
    • Epicutis: An ixocutis, 20-200 µm thick, made up of creeping, hyaline and colourless, subregular to interwoven, 1-4 µm wide filamentous hyphae, occasionally with dark or blackish finely incrusting pigments; subpileipellis dark yellow in KOH, composed of subregular, colourless to yellowish, filamentous to inflated, 2-16 µm µm wide hyphae.

    Distribution: Chuxiong, Yunnan Province, China.

    Habitat: Growing solitary to scattered and gregarious on cow dung or grassland where cattle have grazed in summer and early autumn.

    Studied material: CHINA, Yunnan Province: Chuxiong City, Zixi Mountain, on cow dung, 25°01'05.5"N, 101°23'19.9"E, elevation 2237 m, 20 August 2009, Tao Ma CX026 (IFRD414-010, holotype). CHINA, Yunnan Province: Chuxiong, Wuding County, near a reservoir at road side in Bailu Village, on soil of grassland where cattle have grazed, 25°39'25.6"N, 102°05'30.0"E, elevation 2523 m, 24 Sep 2012, Xiao-Fei Lin WD007 (IFRD414-011)

    Discussion: Etymology refers to the location Chuxiong, where the collections were found.
    Psilocybe chuxiongensis is characterized by its subtropical habitat where it grows on dung. The pileus is smooth, buff-yellow to yellowish brown, hemispheric to hemispheric-convex without an umbo or papilla, lacks an annulus, while the context is yellowish both in the pileus and stipe. Bluing mainly occurs on the surface of the lamellae and stipe when bruising and drying, and mycelium are blue in culture. Microscopically Psilocybe chuxiongensis has large ellipsoid, elongate-ellipsoid to subhexagonal basidiospores 13-16 x 8-10.5 x 7.5-10 µm with slightly thick to thick walls, and hyaline, broadly clavate or ventricose pleurocystidia with an obtuse to short rostrate apex.
    Following the taxonomical concept of Psilocybe proposed by Singer (Singer, 1948, 1986, Singer & Smith 1958), Psilocybe chuxiongensis belongs to sect. Caerulescentes Singer because of its surface bluing fruit body and blue mycelium in culture. In this section, it is closely related to Psilocybe cubensis as it has similar basidiospores, basidiomata, pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia, as well as the same habitat, and they can be easily differentiated from other species by the color and form of basidiomata, large spores and the subtropical habitat on dung. The relationship with Psilocybe cubensis is strongly supported by phylogenetic analyses in all three datasets; they cluster together as a sister group and can be distinguished from other members with high statistical support values.
    Guzmán (1983) introduced sect. Cubensae to accommodate Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe subcubensis, which is characterized by coprophilous or subcoprophilous habitat, bluing basidiomata, subhexagonal thick-walled (0.5-1 µm) basidiospores, and a well-developed annulus. These two species are very similar and differ in the size of the basidiospores. Morphologically Psilocybe chuxiongensis can be easily separated from Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe subcubensis by the absence of annulus and the hemispheric to hemispheric-convex pileus without an umbo or papilla. Furthermore, Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe subcubensis have a white context, ovoid, broadly ellipsoid to subhexagonal or hexagonal basidiospores in face view, smaller ventricose pleurocystidia and fusoid-ventricose to lageniform to tibiiform cheilocystidia (Singer & Smith 1958 Guzmán 1983, Noordeloos 1999, Bau & Sarentoya 2009).

    source - Phytotaxa [156 (4): 211-220]

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    Psilocybe columbiana

    Psilocybe columbiana (Peck) Hesle



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 6-19 mm diam., convex to campanulate, smooth to slightly rimose, faintly striate and transparently when moist, lubricous, hygrophanous, brown reddish to yellow reddish, finally yellow whitish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate or subadnate, ochre violaceous, with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-60 x 1-3 mm, cylindrical, sometimes sinuous, hollow, white to brown reddish, covered with floccose white fibrils, sometimes with a rhizomorphic white prolongation in the soil, up to 20 mm long. Veil white and floccose, distinct annulus absent.
    • Context: White in pileus, concolorous with pileus in stipe, staining blue when cut.
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (6.6-) 7.1-8.8 x (4.9-) 6-6.6 (-7.1) x 4.4-5.5 µm, subrhomboid in frontal view, subelliptic in lateral view, light brownish chocolate or yellowish brown, smooth, thin walled, with a broad germ pore. Spore print violet brown to almost black.
    • Basidia: 15-27 x 4.4-8 µm, four-spored, hyaline, vesiculose or subpyriform. Pleurocystidia none.
    • Cheilocystidia: 22-30 x 3,3-6,5 µm, abundant, forming a sterile band at the edge of the gills, hyaline, lageniform or fusoid-ampullaceous and mucronate, sometimes branched; the neck 1.6-2.2 µm across.
    • Subhymenium: Formed by subglobose, subhyaline elements with yellowish brown irregularly incrusting pigment.
    • Trama: Regular, hyaline, with elongate hyphae 15-25 µm diam. with thin wall (1.5 µm thick).
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized, with brownish or hyaline hyphae 2-6 µm broad. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: On clay black soils without herbaceous vegetation, sometimes living together with Aleuria aurantia (Pers. ex Fr.) Fuck., in páramos of Espeletia argentea at 3300-3500 m elevation. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: COLOMBIA, Department of Cundinamarca, Municipio of Tansa, road La Represa del Rio Neusa to la Torre de Transmisión de TV, July 24, 1971. Guzmán 9146 (Holotype COL; Isotype ENCB); other collections from the same locality are Guzmán 9145. 9l56; 9158 (all in ENCB and COL).

    Discussion: Psilocybe columbiana belongs to the Psilocybe zapotecorum group because of its spores and floccose stipe, but differs in the size of the spores and form of the cheilocystidia. It is a hallucinogenic species since it stains blue and has a farinaceous taste and odor.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (1): 237-238]

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    Psilocybe coprophila

    Psilocybe coprophila (Bull.) P.Kumm. (1871)


    synonyms:
    Deconica coprophila (Bull.) P.Karst (1821)
    Agaricus coprophilus Bull. (1793)
    Stropharia coprophila (Bull.) J.E. Lange (1936)


    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.0-2.5 cm broad, at first hemispheric, sometimes with a low umbo at the disc, becoming convex, broadly so in age; margin incurved, in age decurved to occasionally plane, fringed with evanescent whitish scales when young; surface glabrous, subviscid, translucent-striate when young and fresh, hygrophanous; color reddish-brown to dingy yellowish-brown, fading in age; context thin, colored like the cap, unchanging when cut or bruised.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, subdistant, relatively broad, pale grey when young, becoming grayish-brown, finally purple-brown.
    • Stem/Stipe: 1.5 - 5.0 cm long, 1.0-3.0 mm thick, equal, dry, straight to sometimes curved at the base; surface often squamulose when young, becoming fibrillose, whitish to dingy yellow-brown, not bruising blue; partial veil absent or if present, evanescent leaving fine scales on the young pileus and/or in a superior ring zone.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 11-14 x 7-9 µm, ellipsoid, smooth; spore print purple-brown.

    Habitat: Scattered to clustered on horse and cow dung; fruiting after rains during the winter months.

    Dosage: Nonactive.

    Comment: This small dung dweller is recognized by a sticky, reddish-brown to dull yellowish-brown cap which when young is edged with cottony white fibrils and is typically translucent-striate. Unlike most Psilocybe species, Psilocybe coprophila does not bruise or discolor blue, with the exception of a few reports of bluing mycelium. Psilocybe coprophila does not bruise or discolor blue, with the exception of a few reports of bluing mycelium. Psilocybe coprophila is most likely to be confused with Stropharia semiglobata, another dung dweller with a viscid cap, but the latter is more yellowish, lacks a translucent striate margin even when young, and has a slimy, not dry stipe. Other mushrooms found on dung include Panaeolus and Coprinus species. Species of Panaeolus can be separated by dry, not viscid caps and distinctive mottled gills, while Coprinus species typically dissolve into an inky liquid in age.

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    Psilocybe crobula

    Psilocybe crobula (Fr.) Singer 1962


    synonyms:
    Geophila crobula (Fr.) Kuhner i Romagnesi
    Psilocybe inquilina var. crobulus (Fr.) Høiland


    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.4-4 cm broad. Convex to broadly convex, expanding to nearly plane with maturity. Dingy brown, hygrophanous, fading to yellowish brown. Surface smooth, translucent-striate, viscid when wet from a separable, gelatinous pellicle. Often adorned with fragile remnants of a veil, soon disappearing.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, clay to dull rust, with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 5-12 mm long by 1-4 mm thick, adorned with distinct fibrillose patches, concolorous with cap, more dark reddish brown near the base and lighter above an annular zone. Partial veil cortinate.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Subellipsoid, thin walled, cigar brown in mass, 6-8 by 3.5-5 µm.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: Lageniform to sublageniform, 25-45 µm long.

    Habitat: Fruiting in the fall on twigs and other wood debris - not on grass. Reported from the northwestern United States, Great Britain, much of Europe, and Russia. Probably more widely distributed.

    Comment: Not known to me as being a psilocybin mushroom. However, Phillips (1981) notes that it is active, without further elaboration or supporting references. Analyses by Høiland's (1978) failed to detect any psilocybin or psilocin. Psilocybe crobula is a small mushroom, which I have always found directly attached to sticks. The fibrillose patches on the stem are quite distinctive, and reminiscent of many small Galerinas. For this reason, I urge caution. See also Psilocybe inquilina, a species similar in its macroscopic features and with which it is often confused, Psilocybe atrobrunnea and Psilocybe washingtonensis. Guzmán and Smith (1978) noted the similarities Psilocybe crobula shares with Psilocybe laticystis and Psilocybe subborealis, two species from the Pacific Northwest.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe cyanescens

    Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield



    We had the opportunity to visit Washington State and see some beautiful mushrooms in the wild. It was a very interesting adventure and very rewarding as well as educational. We had a great tour guide, John Allen a.k.a. mjshroomer, who has been picking mushrooms in WA for over 20 years. On the first day of hunting, our first stop was a church, where the sacred mushroom was growing on sacred grounds, I knew it was going to be a good day and a nice mushroom vibe after that. We found these growing amongts the alder mulch around the church. These pics can give you some idea of the surrounding these mushrooms grow in. Amongts all the alder mulch, leaves, twigs, etc. a nice little patch growing amongts some leaves, alder mulch and rhododendron bushes.

    The next patch we found was growing amongts some large shrubs in the alder mulch. I doubt anybody would have known these were there if it had not been for John's resourcefullness of walking for hours a day looking in places ppl wouln't think of. We literally had to walk amongts some waste high bushes and move them aside to see them growing down underneith the bushes. These were the largest in size that we found of all the patches, they ranged from 4" to 6" in height, and had caps about 2-3" in diameter.

    Well.. here is where the disappointment begins. Many of the patches we went to after this, during all the excitement I forgot to take pictures and even bring my camera. Yep.. I dropped the ball on that one. Thats ok.. gives me an excuse to go back to WA :)
    One of the most interesting things I found, was that the deadly poisonous Galerina mushroom was growing right next to the Psilocybe cyanescens in almost every place we found them. What is even more frightening is they look pretty similiar. But dont let that scare you off from hunting them, you can tell them apart. And very distinctly upon a close inspection and taking your time to pick them. The Psilocybe cyanescens have a more caramel color cap, darker in color, and the stem of the Psilocybe cyanescens is always white, except around the base where the dirt is. Also the gills are much lighter and whiter in color then the galerinas. The galerina's always had a orangeish/brown color stem and veils, and the cap was orangeish brown as well. Once your out there picking them its easy to tell them apart if you have good eyesight and know what your looking for. If ever in doubt, also you can do a spore sample as the spores of the deadly galerina will be rusty as where the Psilocybe cyanescens will be purplish brown to black. Please be carefull and dont pick anything your unsure of, its just not worth dying over.

    Ok... time to test yourself on some identification.
    Below are some close ups of a Psilocybe cyanescens growing right next to the deadly galerina and some inky caps. There is only ONE Psilocybe cyanescens in these pictures.
    The first 2 pictures will show top views, the 3rd pic will show the gills and stems of the mushrooms.
    Then, the answer will be given in the following pics with a red arrow pointing out the Psilocybe cyanescens.
    Can you tell the difference?

    ANSWER

    Well.. how did you do? This picture was staged. Sorry.. once again during all the excitement I should have tooken some better pictures. But none the less... in alder mulch, grass.. everywhere the galerinas were very close by.
    A few last notes on the Psilocybe cyanescens.
    One thing we found depressing is the psilocybe mushrooms are on a big decline in the Seattle area. Most landscaping is no longer being done with alder mulch, but there using some kind of red ceder mulch instead, and the psilo's dont thrive in that.
    The places you want to look are anywhere that looks like fresh alder mulch has been planted in the last year or two. We found them right around ppl houses and buildings, in road dividers, in grass near alder mulch, around school campuses.. all sorts of places. The largest patches were about 8X the size of that little patch by the church, but I forgot my camera in the car...DOH!!!!

    Plenty of spore prints were taken on wax paper. They are from the wild so they would probably require the use of agar to get them started. From there, I've had Psilocybe cyanescens grow on finche seed, you can use that as spawn to inoculate some alder wood chips and or sawdust. You can mix that in with some compost or straw even as shown in TMC, and case them with some good fertile soil. Planted in the spring or summer, given lots of water, in the fall when the rains come and the temps drop down to around 50-60f they should start fruiting for you. Its rare this mushroom can be grown indoors, but it has been done in a fridge from some pics I've seen of mj's. But your best bet is putting a patch outdoors.
    As for the high.. well.. its very very potent, but tends to be a "speedy" high and gives me intense restlessness. I have a real hard time coming down and trying to sleep comfortably on this mushroom, and my muscles always ache from it. Its very visual when taken at least 3 dried grams, and at that dose.. hold on... because you'll be flying. I've talked with others that do not get this speeded out feeling from them,, and I've tripped with some friends that felt the same effects as me. Your milage may very. Many ppl really love this mushroom. It was certainly very beautiful to see in nature, and its a very tough, strong mushroom. The stems are very thick and hold up quite well while picking them. And from what I understand its pretty easy to grow outdoors if you live in the right environment.
    A hugh thanks to John Allen for being our tour guide in Seattle WA, and showing us some beautiful pathces of Psilocybe cyanescens.

    Growing tips for P. cyanescens
    You dont need to make syringes from ps cyanescens, or inoculate grain as spawn. Prepare your alder wood, sterilize it. Preferable 4:1 alder sawdust to alder wood chips, small chips. Only use a small amount to start with, say about 6 to 8 cups worth of alder wood. Just scrape the spores directly on the the sterilized, moist wood. Incubate it, indoors at around 70f -75F. It will take a good 6-8 weeks for that wood to fully colonize.
    Use that as more spawn to slowly start inoculating more larger volumes of wood for anther 2 months. Then plant your patch outdoors with more fresh alder wood. If you can get it planted outdoors by the end of April, you'll have good chances for it to fruit by fall. If not, they may not fruit until the following spring or fall.
    Psilocybe cyanescens are slow growing. If you dont see germination, then lower the temps to about 55F for about 2 weeks. They are a temperate species so sometimes even to germinate they like the cold weather to begin with. After they start germinating and growing, you can bring the temps back up to around 70-75F to speed up the spawn run. But they still will only fruit outdoors when the climate is right, lots of rain and low temps between 45-60F.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Wood chips.
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 16-24°C / 10-15°C
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    Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa

    Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa Guzmán & Stamets


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe rhododendronensis



    DESCRIPTION 1

    Description: Scattered to gregarious among bush lupines in alder and willow wood chips and bark mulch. Common among rhododendron gardens and nurseries and flood plains near river estuaries. From northern California (Eureka/Arcada) north to British Columbia, Canada. September to December. High in psilocin and low in psilocybin. Loses over 70% or more of their potency in drying.
    A few hundred pounds of this species mixed with Psilocybe cyanescens was collected from mulch piled along side of I-5 highway on both sides of the road between Eureka and Arcada, California. I myself have only collected this species a few times in a twenty year period.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org



    DESCRIPTION 2

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.4-3.5 cm broad. Conic to convex to broadly convex, eventually plane in age, typically not umbonate. Colour deep chestnut brown, hygrophanous, fading in drying to pale tan to yellowish brown, even dingy grayish white in drying. Surface viscid when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, to slightly subdecurrent in age, light grayish when young, becoming purplish brown with maturity with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-70 mm long by 2-4 mm thick, straight to flexuous, equal to enlarged near the base, longitudinally striate, and adorned with fine fibrils that become bluish when handled. Yellow brown to light tan underneath. Partial veil white, cortinate, copious, leaving fibrillose veil remnants, sometimes a fragile annular zone on the upper regions. Flesh brownish, bruising bluish.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spores purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid, 9-12 by 5.5-7 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-, rarely 2-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: Fusiform to lanceolate, 22-33 by 5.5-7 µm, with an elongated, forking neck, 1-1.5 µm thick at apex.

    Season: September to December.

    Habitat: Fruiting in the Pacific Northwest. Just like Psilocybe baeocystis they grow mostly grass, but sometimes in mixed mulch, in soils enriched with deciduous wood debris, in Alder and Willow wood chips and bark mulch, Fir sawdust, in coastal regions, in rhododendron gardens and nurseries, and in flood plains in river estuaries. Scattered to gregarious.

    Blueing: Bruising when handled, mostly in the pileus margin but also on the stem and base.

    Dosage: 1 large specimen, 2 to 5 small specimens. High in psilocin and low in psilocybin. Loses over 70% or more of their potency in drying.

    Notes: "I have found stuntzii, baeos, and fibs within a 25' radius. They like old, well kept grass that has weeds" (NeoSporen).
    Both psilocybin and psilocin (0.05 mg per gram dry weight and 1.4 mg per gram psilocin) were detected by Beug and Bigwood.

    source - www.shroomery.org

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

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    Psilocybe cyanofranciscana



    synonyms:
    Psilocybe allenii Borov., Rockefeller & P.G.Werner (2012)
    Psilocybe cyanofranciscana nom. prov.
    Psilocybe cyanofriscosa (improper latin): Cyclone Psilocybe

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 20-40+ mm in diameter, convex to broadly convex to plane at maturity. Very light brown maturing to light yellow to grayish white upon drying. Surface viscid. Flesh white soon bruising bluish green.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-70+ mm in length, yellowish. Flesh dramatically bruising bluish green where injured. Partial veil cortinate sometimes leaving an annular zone.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed. Grayish coloration in young fruit bodies becoming purplish brown in maturity.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 10.5 -12.5 (13.5) µm in length, ellipsoid, dark purplish brown in deposit. Slightly larger than Psilocybe cyanescens spores (9-12 µm.).

    Habitat: Wood debris, landscaped areas.

    Comment: Psilocybe cyanofranciscana is a newly acknowledged species in the California Bay Area and has not yet been officially described. The name "Psilocybe cyanofranciscana" is provisional and probably won't be retained upon publication in a scientific journal
    Stamets (2005) coined the name "Cyclone" Psilocybe to describe the cyclonic (swirled) growth of the mycelium on agar, a feature often not present. This is possibly an introduced species that appears to be aggressively spreading and perhaps displacing its close relative, Psilocybe cyanescens, but there is also evidence that this species has been present in San Francisco since at least 1975 (Duffy and Vergeer, 1977). Microscopically Psilocybe cyanofranciscana and Psilocybe cyanescens are virtually indistinguishable but the mushrooms are easily separated in the field based on macroscopic features. Psilocybe cyanofranciscana is typically larger, more squat, paler in coloration, and lacks the wavy cap margin, especially when young, of Psilocybe cyanescens. Superficially, Psilocybe cyanofranciscana resembles the smaller Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa, but the microscopic features do not agree and it doesn't appear to be closely related.

    source - www.sporeworks.com

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    Psilocybe dumontii

    Psilocybe dumontii Sing. ex Guzmán, sp. nov.



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 8-15 mm diam., conical, papillate, smooth, but striate toward the margin, hygrophanous, brown to yellowish brown, subviscid or lubricous to dry.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, very thin, dark violaceous brown.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-35 x 1-1.5 mm, cylindrical, somewhat bulbous, hollow, whitish to reddish brown, densely covered by floccose, white fibrils of velar origin. Veil inconspicuous in the adult carpophores.
    • Context: Whitish, staining blue to dark-blue when injured.
    • Odor: And taste not registered.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (4.4-) 4.9-5.5 (-6) x 4.4-4.9 x 3.3 - 4 µm, rhomboid in frontal view, subelliptic in lateral view, light brownish chocolate, thick walled and with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: 11-17 x 4.4-6 µm, two- or four-spored, hyaline, cylindrical-ventricose.
    • Pleurocistidia: None.
    • Cheilocystidia: 10-18 (-26) x 3.3-6 (-7.7) µm, abundant, forming a sterile band at the edge of the gill, polymorphous, fusoid, ventricose-rostrate, clavate, strangulate or mucronate, hyaline or some brownish.
    • Subhymenium: With parallel hyphae, strongly and irregularly pigmented with chocolate brown pigment, 4-25 µm diam; in some parts, a lot of blue pigment can be seen diffused in the KOH between the hyphae.
    • Trama: Regular, hyaline or pigmented as the subhymenium, hyphae, 5-20 µm diam, thick walled (1-3.3 µm thick), some are solid.
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized, formed by brown reddish to hyaline hyphae, parallel to the surface.
    • Hypodermium: As the subhymenium and trama hyphae.

    Habitat: On rotten wood in subtropical forest at 1800 m elevation. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: PANAMA, Prov. Chiriqui, Cerro Punta, near Nueva Suiza, July 3, 1975, Dumont PA-2074 (Holotype NY; Isotype at ENCB).

    Discussion: This species is close to Psilocybe yungensis Sing. S. Smith, but differs in the smaller and brownish cheilocystidia. The brownish cheilocystidia connects Psilocybe dumontii with those species described by Guzmán (1977-A) from the tropical rain forests of Mexico such as Psilocybe singerii Guzmán, Psilocybe weldenii Guzmán and others. The species is named after Dr. K. Dumont, collector of the type material, in recognition of his enthusiastic mycological work in South America.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 240]

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    Psilocybe eucalypta

    Psilocybe eucalypta Guzmán & Watling


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe subaeruginosa Guzmán & Watling (1978)
    Psilocybe australiana Guzmán & Watling (1978)
    Psilocybe tasmaniana Guzmán & Watling (1978)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.5-3.8 cm broad. Convex, expanding to broadly convex to nearly plane, often with a central shallow umbo. Surface smooth to slightly translucent-striate near the margin, viscid when moist, reddish brown when young, becoming ochraceous, hygrophanous, fading in drying to dull straw colored. Flesh whitish, bruising bluish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, dull brown, soon becoming purplish brown, and eventually dark violaceous gray with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 65-86 mm long by 2-2.5 mm thick. Covered with silky fibrils, equal to swollen at the base (4-5 mm thick) to which whitish rhizomorphs are attached. Partial veil cortinate, leaving a fugacious fibrillose annular zone in the upper regions.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spores purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid, 9-13 by 5.5-6.6 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 17-30 by 5.5-7.7 µm, fusoid-ventricose to mucronate to sublageniform with short necks 2-3 µm thick.
    • Cheilocystidia: 15-25 by 4.4-6.6 µm, fusoid-ventricose to sublageniform, with elongated necks 4-5 µm long by 3-4 µm broad.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious on soils rich in woody debris, often in grassy areas with Eucalyptus trees. Reported from New South Wales, eastern Australia.

    Comment: Thought to be moderately active, but no analyses have yet been reported. Chang and Mills (1992) sought to show synonymy between Psilocybe australiana, Psilocybe eucalypta, Psilocybe subaeruginosa and Psilocybe tasmaniana, although, in the opinions of Guzmán, Bandal, and King (1993) and myself, they failed to conclusively prove their case. (See comments under Psilocybe subaeruginosa). Additionally, I find it difficult to accept their concept that, given the nature of close relatives in the genus Psilocybe, the same species can be both a coprophilic and lignicolous species. Hence, I am following Guzmán and treating these taxa as separate entities until further studies prove otherwise.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe fagicola

    Psilocybe fagicola R. Heim & Cailleux


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe fagicola var. mesocystidiata Guzmán (1978)
    Psilocybe xalapensis Guzmán & López (1979)
    Psilocybe wassoniorum Guzmán & Pollock (1979)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (5-) 10-15 (-25) mm in diameter, conic or convex to campanulate, subumbonate or umbonate, frequently with papilla (1-2 mm high, even and more or less glabrous, lubricous, striate at the margin when moist, sometimes somewhat wrinkled, strongly hygrophanous, dark reddish brown, brown chocolate or grayish brown, fading to brownish yellow, olivaceous, yellow or grayish green; turning blue when handled, sometimes becoming and remaining bluish black.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed, or somewhat sinuate, grayish to reddish brown, gray violaceous or dark, violaceous, somewhat spotted, with white edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-60 x 0,7-2 mm, cylindric, equal or somewhat subbulbous, hollow, flexuous, cartilaginous, reddish brown but more paler at the apex; whitish mycelium present towards the base; covered with white floccose fibrils on the margin of the pileus, as small appendices.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purple-brown 5.5-6 x 4.9-5.5 µm, subrhomboid in face view. Subellipsoid in profile view, smooth, thick walled dark yellowish brown with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: 11-20 x 4,5-6,5 µm, 4 spored or 2 spored, hyaline, ventricose cylindric or cylindric pyriform.
    • Pleurocistidia: Scanty difficult to find when they are present they are 13-17 x 5-6 µm, subfusiform or sublageniform and hyaline.
    • Cheilocystidia: 6-15 µm long. Abundant hyaline, obclavate with long neck, 1-2 µm thick, sometimes with a hyaline viscous drop 5-10 µm in diameter at the apex.

    Season: July to late August.

    Habitat: Solitary to small groups. Restricted to the Fagus forests of Mexico. On humus rich in leaves, or sometimes between mosses. At 1850 m.

    Blueing: Bruising blue when injured, may turn blackish blue on the pileus.

    Notes: Known only from the type locality.

    source - www.shroomery.org

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    Psilocybe farinacea

    Psilocybe farinacea Rick ex Guzmán, sp. nov.


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe albofimbriata (Rick) Singer

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 20-40 (-80) mm diam., convex to subcampanulate, smooth but slightly striate at the margin, subviscid to dry, brownish to brownish reddish or straw color.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate or sinuate, brownish violaceous or brownish chocolate, with whitish edges or concolorous.
    • Stem/Stipe: 35-65 (-80) x 3-8 cm, cylindrical, uniform or subbulbous, hollow, whitish to brownish, smooth or with floccose fibrils at the apex, veil remnants, staining blue when injured. Veil arachnoid, white to violaceous, but not forming an annulus on the stipe.
    • Context: Whitish, staining blue when cut.
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 7.5-9 (-10.5) x 5.2-7.5 x 3-4 µm, subrhomboid in face view, elliptic in side view, thick walled brownish yellowish and with a broad basal germ pore.
    • Basidia: 10-15 x 7-8 µm, two or four-spored, vesiculose, hyaline.
    • Pleurocistidia: None.
    • Cheilocystidia: 22-33 x 5-7.5 µm, vesiculose-fusiform with more or less long necks 2-3 µm diam., hyaline, forming a sterile band along the edge of the gill.
    • Subhymenium: And trama brownish, with collapsed hyphae.
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized formed by parallel hyaline hyphae.
    • Hypodermium: Brownish with elongated hyphae, 8-10 µm diam. Clamp connections scarce.

    Habitat: Gregarious on soil. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: BRAZIL, Sao Leopoldo, May 1908, Rick (Holotype, Lloyd Herb. 27598; BPI).

    Discussion: Psilocybe farinacea is very close to Psilocybe caerulescens Murr., but differs in the size of the spores and cheilocystidia. This species was named by Rick and sent to Lloyd but, apparently, was never described. Its bluing indicates that this species probably is hallucinogenic.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 241]

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    Psilocybe fimetaria

    Psilocybe fimetaria Orton


    synonyms:
    Stropharia fimetaria P.D.Orton (1964)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (0.5) 1-2.5 (3-6) cm broad. Conic to convex, subcampanulate, expanding to broadly convex. Typically umbonate. Translucent when moist. Pale reddish brown to honey to ochraceous. Hygrophanous. Yellow olive to ochraceous or yellow buff. Bruising blue where damaged.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, sinuate or uncinate. Purplish brown with white edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: (20) 40-65 (90) mm long x (0.5) 1-3 (4) mm thick. Equal and swollen at base. White, reddish brown or honey colored with blue green and/or deep sea green tones. Hollow.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (9.5) 11-14 (16) x 6.5-8.5 (9.5) µm. Sporeprint - Dark purplish brown.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious on horse manure, grassy areas in rich soils. Stamets (1996) reports that this species fruits in large rings.

    Distribution: Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, Canada.

    Season: October through December.

    Dosage: 15 to 30 fresh specimens or 1/4 fresh ounce. 1 to to grams dried.

    Comment: This species macroscopically resembles Psilocybe stuntzii and bares some similarity to Psilocybe semilanceata. A related species is Psilocybe subfimetaria, which is also similar in appearance to Psilocybe semilanceata.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe fuliginosa

    Psilocybe fuliginosa (Murrill) A.H. Sm.


    synonyms:
    Astylospora fuliginosa Murrill (1918)
    Psathyra fuliginosa (Murrill) Murrill (1918)
    Atylospora fuliginosa Murrill (1918)

    Description: Following data comes from couple sources: Spores and comment are taken from Psilocybe fuliginosa species description in Mycologia 40 (6): 697. Pileus, stipe, lamellae, distribution and some of spores comes from Astylospora fuliginosa synonym description from Mycologia 10 (1): 25.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: Hemispheric, not expanding, not umbonate, gregarious, 2 cm broad and 1 cm high; surface smooth, glabrous, hygrophanous, slightly striate, uniformly fuliginous, becoming somewhat paler on the disk; margin straight, eroded, concolorous.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, broad, ventricose, subcrowded, fuliginous, entire on the edges; spores usually ovoid, tapering at one end, smooth, purplish-brown, 7 x 4-5 µm.
    • Stem/Stipe: Equal or somewhat larger below, slender, smooth, glabrous, concolorous, whitish toward the base, 4-5 cm long, 1.5-2 mm thick.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 6-7 x 4.5-5.5 µm, smooth, typically triangular in optical section but varying to ovoid or ellipsoid (as seen in face view), ellipsoid in side view, sordid yellowish brown when revived in KOH, with an obscure apical hyaline germ pore. Tapering at one end, purplish-brown, 7 x 4-5 µm

    Distribution: Type collected in damp soil at Morce's Gap, near Cinchona, Jamaica, 1500 m elevation, December 29, 30, January 2, 1908-9, W.A. & Edna L. Murrill 748 (herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard.). Also collected at the same time and place, W.A. & Edna L. Murrill 680.

    Comment: Dr. Burke has sent me material from Alabama which appears to belong here though the spores vary slightly, being somewhat longer. They range from 6.5 to 8 µm. For Psilocybe fuliginosa the habitat on bare earth, the dry pileus, shape of spores in face view, and fuligineous cast of the carphophore are apparently distinctive. Murril described it as Atylospora fuliginosa (Mycologia 10: 25, 1918).

    source - www.mycologia.org [10 (1): 25, 40 (6): 697]

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    Psilocybe furtadoana

    Psilocybe furtadoana Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: About 15 mm diam., subcampanulate to papillate, smooth, transparent-striate when moist, lubricous, hygrophanous, dark reddish brown to ochraceous or stramineo.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Subadnate, dark violet brown with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: About 35 x 1 mm, cylindrical, uniform, hollow, reddish brown towards the base, covered with whitish floccose fibrils of the veil. Veil white and fugacious.
    • Context: Whitish, fleshy in the pileus, brownish and fibrillose in the stipe
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous, slightly blue-staining when cut.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (4.5-) 5.5-6.6 (-7) x (3.8-) 4.4-4.9 (-5.5) x 3.8-4.2 µm, subrhomboid frontally, subelliptic laterally, yellowish brown, smooth, thick walled, with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: 10-13.2 x 4.4-5.5 µm, four-spored, hyaline, subvesiculose.
    • Pleurocistidia: None.
    • Cheilocystidia: 11-18 x 4.4-6.6 µm, abundant, hyaline or chocolate brown toward the base, bottle shaped or sublageniform, some fusoid-ventricose.
    • Subhymenium: With elongate parallel hyphae, with reddish brown irregularly distributed pigment.
    • Trama: Regular, colored like the subhymenium or hyaline, with hyphae up to 6 µm diam.
    • Epicutis: With subgelatinous reddish brown to hyaline hyphae, around 4 µm diam.
    • Hypodermium: Gradually hyaline, with hyphae thin walled, 5-12 µm diam. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Solitary on soil in open forest of Araucaria brasiliana with Podocarpus. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: BRAZIL , 5 km West of Campos de Jardao, State of Sao Paulo, March 8, 1971, Guzmán 8918 (Holotype SP; Isotype ENCB).

    Discussion: This species is close to Psilocybe brasiliensis but the absence of pleurocystidia, the structures of the subhymenium, as well as the size of the spores and cheilocystidia separate it clearly from the latter. This species is named in honor of Dr. J.S. Furtado who helped the author collected this and other fungi in Brazil.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 242-243]

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    Psilocybe galindoi

    Psilocybe galindoi Guzmán Nova Hedwigia


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe galindoi var. Georgia ATL#7 Large Sclerotia
    Psilocybe galindii

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-30+ mm in diameter, broadly convex to plane at maturity. Surface dry.
    • Stem/Stipe: 100-150 mm in length. Flesh bruising bluish green where injured. Partial veil cortinate.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 9.8-11.2 µm, subrhomboid to subellipsoid, dark purplish brown.

    Habitat: Enriched Soils, Grasslands. Climate Warm temperate.

    Comment: This species forms sclerotia invitro. See also Psilocybe mexicana and Psilocybe tampanensis.
    Initially, this sample was described as Psilocybe atlantis and we assumed that was correct since no similar species were known in Georgia. Samples sent to Psilocybe expert Gaston Guzmán cast some doubt on the mushroom's actual identity, but no alternative identification was suggested.
    A direct comparison of samples with the published description of Psilocybe atlantis has confirmed Guzmán's findings. The strain ATL#7 is not Psilocybe atlantis, but is instead a related species in the Section Mexicanae. This new collection closely resembles Psilocybe galindoi (galindii), a species previously known only from Mexico. For lack of a better name, we are going to unofficially call this sample Psilocybe galindoi var. Georgia. If this species is described in a scientific journal and given a different name, we will amend this description. Efforts are now underway to provide authenticated spore samples of Psilocybe atlantis.
    Both species can be viewed in the Sporeworks Microscopy Gallery Section Mexicanae for side by side comparisons of microscopic features. Note that the authentic Psilocybe atlantis cheilocystidia are irregularly branched and the Psilocybe galindoi var. Georgia are unbranched. Psilocybe atlantis spores are also somewhat smaller. Currently, no mushrooms matching this collection have been described as occurring in the United States.

    source - www.sporeworks.com

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    Psilocybe germanica

    Psilocybe germanica Gartz (2015)



    Discussion: Psilocybe germanica was described as a new taxon from Germany. This species was found to be autumnal and lignicolous, living in soils enriched with deciduous wood-debris, and featured strong blueing behaviour after bruising and ageing. It contained high amounts of psilocybin and baeocystin. This mushroom appears to be the first described species derived from wood chips that contains significant amounts of baeocystin in the absence of psilocin. The novel species was differentiated from other psychoactive taxons such as Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe azurescens and Psilocybe bohemica in combination from features of the stipes and caps. As it was observed previously with the potent psychoactive species Psilocybe cyanescens, it is expected that Psilocybe germanica might be found to achieve a remarkably wide area of distribution in the future given the modern use of mulch in parks and gardens.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-4 cm in diameter, always broadly umbonate, rarely flattening to a little turn up in age with a persistent broad umbo; no traces of a veil at any stages, hygrophanous, moist deep brown, lacking a separable pellicle, margin not wavy, not striate, not translucent when moist, fading in drying to whitish; during development soon a spontaneous gray-bluish colouration on the umbo occurs, at age an additional strong blueing develops, particularly after rains and during freezing; bruising of the white flesh also yields a strong blue colour, odour pleasantly aromatic.
    • Stem/Stipe: 5-9 x 0.3-0.7 cm, characteristic enlarged at the pileus, sometimes the thickening often impressed as a joint, in which the upper end of the handle with the cap then drops; dry, white, not very hard, not flexuous, always curved, often multiple times, without traces of a veil, no fine mycelia on it, sometimes solid lumps visible as a rub, easily staining deep blue when touched at all parts; at first touch sometimes green discoloring until a very fast-moving to deep blue; the wood-like layer in the thickening shows no blueing at all, stuffed with white mycelia at first, later hollow, rhizomorphs on the base, keeping wood substrate together.
    • Gills/Lamellae: At first brownish then dark purple-brown, closely set, alternating adnexed to adnate.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 9-12 x 5.5-7.5 µm, with a clear germ pore.
    • Cheilocystidia: Lageniform, numerous, 25-33 / 6.0-8.3 µm.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.

    Habitat: Gregarious to cespitose on deciduous on wood chips from various plants, also on bark in mixture with soil and other wood debris.

    Distribution: Until now, the mushrooms have only been observed to grow in parks. Holotypus: a gathering (8th October 2014, Dippoldiswalde, Germany) is deposited in the herbarium of the botanical museum Berlin / Dahlem (B).

    Season: Observed growing is from September to December.

    Comment: The tiny species Psilocybe serbica Moser & Horak showed features for caps and stipes similar to Psilocybe bohemica. The microscopic features are comparable to other wood-loving Psilocybe species as is the case with Psilocybe germanica. Chemical analyses of five Psilocybe germanica mushrooms samples revealed the presence of significant amounts of psilocybin and baeocystin. This was consistent with qualitative TLC analysis of 30 samples from 2013 and 35 extracted samples from 2014 and psilocin was not detected.
    Psilocybe germanica showed similar alkaloid levels to what is known about Psilocybe semilanceata with only traces of psilocin. Psilocybe azurescens is generally considered more potent and, in addition to psilocybin and baeocystin, is also displaying comparatively large amounts of psilocin. Both Psilocybe cyanescens and Psilocybe bohemica typically show the presence of psilocybin and traces of baeocystin. A large variation in psilocybin levels are frequently encountered. In contrast to Psilocybe bohemica, Psilocybe cyanescens can also contain large amounts of psilocin. In addition, the new indole derivative aeruginascin was not detected in any of the mushrooms. As far as it is currently known, this trimethylammonium analog of psilocybin has only been reported to occur in the hallucinogenic species Inocybe aeruginascens Babos. Psilocybe semilanceata is the best studied psychoactive mushroom species in the world and is known to contain psilocybin and baeocystin. Previous investigations in 1994 have shown that the use pure methanol yielded the authentic indole derivatives from dried mushrooms and the use of aqueous solvents resulted in hydrolysis of psilocybin and baeocystin to give psilocin.

    source - www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ [31 March 2015]

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    Psilocybe gallaeciae

    Psilocybe gallaeciae Guzmán & M.L. Castro (2003)



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (5-) 10-20 mm diam. (in dry specimens), convex to subcampanulate, with a short conic papilla, smooth to sulcate-striate in dry, sometimes irregularly ondulate or plicate at the margin, brown reddish (7C7-8 or 9F6-8) or brown orangish (805-7), hygrophanous to beige brown (604-5) toward the margin, in dry specimens blackish brown (9F4-5 or more black), with the center blackish red (1008 or 10E8).
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate or subadnate, thin, brown reddish violet (lOE4-5), with edges whitish and even.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-55 x 1-2 mm in dry specimens, with a long pseudorhiza up to 5 mm long, uniform or slightly thick toward the base before the pseudorhiza or subbulbose, brownish pale (4A3-4) to brown reddish (7C8) or blackish (10F4-6), bluing, with white mycelium covering the base, hollow, smooth, but surface fibrillose. Veil non in the adults.
    • Context: Concolorous with pileus whitish below.
    • Odor: Not checked, probably farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (8.5-) 9.5-11 (-13) x (6-) 7-7.5 (-9) x 5.5-6.5 (-7) µm, compressed, in face-view oblong or subellipsoid, in frontal-view subrhomboid, thick-walled, brown yellowish with a conspicous germ pore. Spore print violet black.
    • Basidia: (19-) 20-28 (-33) x (7-) 8-9.5 µm, 4-spored, hyaline, subcylindrical, with a median constriction.
    • Pleurocistidia: (11-) 14-19 (-21.5) x 5-8 (-9) µm, hyaline, common, lageniform or broadly lageniform, with the neck short or up to 8 µm long.
    • Cheilocystidia: (15-) 17-30 (-40) x (4-) 5-8 (-12) µm, hyaline, common, narrowly lageniform, frequently irregularly branched with two or three necks, up to 15 µm long.
    • Subhymenium: Cellular, with hyaline and smooth to encrusted of brown yellowish pigment, 3-8 µm wide elements.
    • Trama: Subregular, with hyaline, cylindrical to inflated hyphae, 3-30 µm wide, some of them encrusted by brown yellow pigment.
    • Epicutis: An ixocutis 16-24 µm thick, with 1.5-5 µm wide, hyaline.
    • Hypodermium: Subpellis (hypopileipellis) hyaline to encrusted of brown yellowish pigment, slightly cellular, with hyphae 2-4 µm wide and inflated elements 8-10.5 µm wide. Clamp connections common.

    Habitat: Gregarious in soil, in grassland and gardens. Known only from Galicia, Spain, where it is common.

    Studied material: SPAIN, La Coruña, Monfero, Caaveiro, 23 November 1997, J. Comesaña "C" (holotype XAL, isotype MA-Fungi 56866, LOU-Fungi 17969). Pontevedra, Vigo, 5 November 1999, J, Pérez (LOU-Fungi 17970; XAL); F. Valeiras "B" (LOU-Fungi 17968; XAL); Campus Universitario, As Lagoas-Marcosende, 6 October 2000, I. Otero & J.M Perdiz (LOU-Fungi 17967; 10 October 2001, J. Granda (LOU-Fungi 17972); 5 November 1999, F. Valeiras "A" (XAL); Nigrán, Chandebrito, 23-28 November 1997, J. Comesaña "B" (XAL); 5 November 1999, F Valeiras "A" (XAL); Gondomar, Pinzas, Donas, 9 November 2001, X. Bellón et al. (LOU-Fungi 17971); November 2000, A. Lorenzo-García 2 (XAL); Grove, October 2000, I. Seral-Bozal (XAL); Pontevedra, without locality, October 1998, J. Ott 98-002 (XAL).

    Discussion: Psilocybe gallaeciae belongs to section Mexicanae Guzmán, following GUZMÁN (1983) for the form and size of their thick-walled spores, and its bluing basidioma. For the pseudorhiza it is closely related to Psilocybe galindii Guzmán (1983) from Mexico and Psilocybe antioquensis Guzmán et al. (1994) from Colombia, but those species have cheilocystidia 14-19 µm long and 15-20 µm long, respectively. Psilocybe mexicana R. Heim has neither pseudorhiza nor pleurocystidia, and it is known only from Mexico and Guatemala. This is the first record of a species of the section Mexicanae found in Europe. Their members are known from Mexico, U.S.A. (Florida), Colombia, Brazil and Thailand (Guzmán, 1995). The local Galician people use Psilocybe gallaeciae recreationally for its hallucinogenic properties. Psilocybe serbica reported by Freire et al. (1994) from Galicia, without any description, probably is Psilocybe gallaeciae. Psilocybe serbica belongs to section Semilanceatae and it is known only from central Europa (Guzmán, 1983).

    source - Boletim da Sociedade Micológica de Madrid [27 (2003) 185-186]

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    Psilocybe graveolens

    Psilocybe graveolens Peck



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (1) 2 - 3 (4) cm in diameter, convex to subumbonate, umbonate or with a slight depression, glabrous, even to slightly striate at the margin, hygrophanous, brownish to orange brownish, fading to golden yellow to whitish, sometimes with a dark green hue. Flesh whitish to pallid brownish, with a strong unfavorable odor.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed, close, yellowish brown to chocolate brown, edges sometimes lighter.
    • Stem/Stipe: (2) 4 - 6 cm x 2 - 5 mm, equal or slightly expanding at the base to subulbous, white to brownish, with dark greenish or violaceous tones. stuffed to hollow, fibrillose, with a soon disappearing evanescent annulus, rhizomorphic strands attached to the base.
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (7) 7.5 - 9.5 (10.5) µm x (3.7) 4.5 - 5.2 (6) µm, pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia present.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.

    Habitat: Psilocybe graveolens is found growing cespitose to gregarious on rich loam of salt marshes or "meadows" in Hackensack, New Jersey, in November.

    Discussion: Psilocybe graveolens is an extremely rare psilocybin mushroom in the section Zapotacorum, which has psilocybin and psilocin as main active compounds, discovered in the salt marshes or "meadows" of Hackensack, New Jersey. This mushroom is known for its strong and persistent odor.
    It is in the section Zapotecorum; other members of this section include Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata, Psilocybe argentipes, Psilocybe collybioides, Psilocybe kumaenorum, Psilocybe muliercula, Psilocybe pintonii, Psilocybe subcaerulipes and Psilocybe zapotecorum. The species name means "strongly smelling": Latin gravis "heavy" and olens participle present of olere "smell".

    source - www.wikipedia.org

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    Psilocybe guatapensis

    Psilocybe guatapensis Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, Garcí et Velázquez



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 8-12 mm in diameter, acute-campanulate, mamillate, lubricous, glabrous, even to slightly sulcate in the margin, hygrophanous, reddish brown to yellowish brown or yellowish orange.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Subadnate, grayish brownish with violaceous tinges and whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-40 x 2-3 mm, equally, but at base subbulbous, hollow, flexuous, whitish to yellowish brown, covered by white subfloccose scales. Veil arachnoid, white, evanescent, leaving small appendages at the pileus margin.
    • Context: Whitish in the pileus, pale brownish in the stipe. Readily turning blue green when injured.
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5.5-) 6-6.5 (-7) x 4-5 µm, subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, thick-walled, yellowish brown, with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: 18-20 x 5-6 µm, 2-, 3 or 4-spored, hyaline, ventricose with a median constriction.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 16-28 x 3-5 µm, abundant, forming an sterile band at the edge of the gill, hyaline, fusoid-ventricose or lageniform with a short or long, simple or bifurcate neck.
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinous with postrated, smooth, hyaline to yellowish brown hyphae.
    • Hypodermium: Hyphodermium with irregular hyphae 5-19 µm in diameter, hyaline or brownish yellow, with incrustations on the walls.
    • Trama: Gill trama with parallel hyphae 4-11 µm broad, hyaline, incrusted with brownish yellow pigment. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Caespitose and gregarious, in orange brown clay soil covered by mosses, in a road embankment, in a subtropical forest with (Podocarpus), at 1850 m alt. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: COLOMBIA, Departamento Antioquia, Municipio Guatapé, Finca Montepinar, Sept. 15, 1990, Guzmán 29571-B (holotype HUA, isotype XAL).

    Discussion: This species is close to Psilocybe cordispora Heim, known only from Mexico, but differs by the bulbous base of the stipe, the mamillate pileus, and the smaller cheilocystidia [(20-) 25-35 x 5-6 µm in Psilocybe cordispora]. Other allied species is Psilocybe mammillata (Murr.) Smith, which lacks a bulbous stipe and differs also by its cheilocystidia 12-17 µm (Guzmán, 1983). All these fungi, including Psilocybe guatapensis, belong to Sect. Cordispora that have hallucinogenic properties.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [51: 228-229]

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    Psilocybe guilartensis

    Psilocybe guilartensis Guzmán, Tapia & Nieves-Rivera (1997)





    DESCRIPTION 1

    Description: Psilocybe guilartensis is a psilocybin mushroom which has psilocybin and psilocin as main active compounds. It is common in Puerto Rico. First reported in the literature in 1997, Gastón Guzmán placed Psilocybe guilartensis in Psilocybe section Brunneocystidiatae due to its blue staining reaction, small thick-walled subrhomboid spores, and pigmented cystidia. Other mushrooms in the section Brunneocystidiatae include Psilocybe banderillensis, Psilocybe banderillensis var. paulensis, Psilocybe brunneocystidia, Psilocybe heimii, Psilocybe inconspicua, Psilocybe pleurocystidiosa, Psilocybe rzedowski, Psilocybe singerii, Psilocybe uxpanapensis, Psilocybe veraecrucis and Psilocybe weldenii.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-3 cm in diameter, initially subconical to campanulate (bell-shaped), expanding to plano-convex with an umbo. Cap surface dark violet brown in color, translucent-striate near the margin, hygrophanous, fading to tan as it dries. Staining blue-green to black where bruised.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Cream color when young, violet brown or chocolate brown in age, with adnexed attachment.
    • Stem/Stipe: 3-8 cm long, 1-2 mm thick, central, equal with subbulbous base, hollow and cylindric, color whitish to brown, ornamented with small flattened scales towards the base. The base is covered in tiny yellow fibers which help distinguish this from similar species. Staining blue-green to black where bruised.
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous, sometimes with a slight mustard taste.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark violet brown, subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, thick walled, 6 x 5 µm.
    • Basidia: Basidia four-spored. Clamp connections common.
    • Pleurocistidia: Present.
    • Cheilocystidia: Pigmented.

    Habitat: Psilocybe guilartensis is found growing gregariously, often on disturbed bare clay or moss. Found along hiking trails, in coffee plantations, tropical and subtropical forests, especially in landslide areas. Known only from Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic.

    source - www.wikipedia.org



    DESCRIPTION 2

    Description: An emendation of Psilocybe guilartensis, sis presented because morphological features that were not presented in the original protolog of this species (Guzmán et al 1997) have been discovered. Additional taxonomic features include a setaceous and tomentose, mustard-yellow surface coating on the lower part of the stipe, presence of two types of pleuro- and cheilocystidia, cheilocystidia with irregular encrustations at the base, and an occasional odor of mustard.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (5-) 15-20 (-30) mm diam, conic to campanulate, subumbonate or papillate, becoming plano-convex, umbonate or papillate, smooth or subrimose, moist, violet brown (11F4-6) to dark chocolate brown (6F4), hygrophanous, drying at times to Tawny brown, margin translucent-striate and/or sulcate-striate.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed, whitish to smoke gray (3C2) at first, finally fuscous, dark purplish (14F4-6) or chocolate brown (6F4), edges concolorous, even to subfimbriate.
    • Stem/Stipe: (22-) 35-60 (-80) x 1-1.5 (-2) mm broad, hollow, white or straw colored at first or concolorous with pileus above; equal with a subbulbous base, inserted to one-third or one-half length, smooth or irregular, appressed squamulose toward the base; base with a tomentose mustard-yellow coating.
    • Context: Context whitish in the pileus, becoming brownish in the stipe. All parts caerulescent when cut or bruised, staining blue-green to blackish.
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous or of mustard, although sometimes very slightly so.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5-) 5.5-6.5 (-7.5) x (4.5) 5-5.5 (-7) x 4-5 µm (Q = 1.11), subrhomboid or subglobose in face view, subellipsoid in side view, thick-walled, up to 1 µm thick, brownish-yellow, with a conspicuous pore, 0.8-1 µm wide. Spore print Dark Violaceous Brown.
    • Basidia: 20-32 x (4-) 5-7 µm, 4 sterigmate, hyaline, ventricose or subcylindric, with a median constriction.
    • Pleurocistidia: Of two types, type "A" (9-) 13-20 (-28) x 3-5 (-9) µm, common but difficult to find, hyaline, ventricose, submucronate or sublageniform, with a regular or irregular short or long neck; type "B" (12-) 16-28 (-40) x (5.5-) 7-10 (-14) µm, common and easily seen, dark brown or grayish opaque, rarely hyaline, ventricose, subfusoid or bowling-pin shaped, with a subglobose head, with or without a neck.
    • Cheilocystidia: Of two types, type "A" (12-) 14-26 (-30) x (4-) 6-8 (-12) µm, common but difficult to find, hyaline, yellowish or grayish opaque, smooth or with irregular encrusted walls toward the base, lageniform, ventricose-rostrate, or occasionally with swollen base and bifurcate branched rostrate apices; type "B" (12-) 18-28 (-34) x (5-) 6-9 (-12) µm, common and easily seen, colors and shapes similar to pleurocystidia type "B".
    • Subhymenium: Poorly developed, subcellular, hyaline or brownish, with elements 3-10 µm.
    • Trama: Regular, with hyaline to yellowish or brownish cylindrical or inflated hyphae 2,5-8 µm wide or 8-30 µm, wide, both thick-walled, up to 2 µm thick, with brown encrustations.
    • Epicutis: A thin layer of subgelatinized, repent, hyaline or brownish cylindrical hyphae, 1.5-2 µm, wide, rarely with hyaline cylindrical or subclavate pileocystidia, these erect, single or in scattered clusters.
    • Hypodermium: With hyaline to pale yellowish cylindrical or inflated hyphae 3-9 µm, wide, thin-walled, frequently encrusted with brown pigment. Context in pileus and stipe with both hyaline, cylindrical hyphae, 2-4 µm diam, and buff-yellow or brownish, globose elements, which are up to 27 µm. Basal mycelioid covering formed of branching setaceous cylindrical hyphae, up to 70 µm long and 1-4 (-5) µm, thick-walled, walls up to 1,5 µm thick, dark yellow brown, arising from hyaline cylindrical clamped hyphae, that are thin- or thick-walled and 1,5-4 (-5) µm. Clamp connections common.

    Habitat: Gregarious on bare clay, covered with mosses, mainly on landslide slopes, in tropical and subtropical forests, known only in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic.

    Studied material: PUERTO RICO, Mun. Adjuntas, Guilarte State Forest, trail to Monte Guilarte Peak, Sep 1994, Nieves-Rivera, Santos-Flores & Betancourt, ledger Nieves Rivera PR-1 (holotype Mapr; isotype Xal). Mun. Villalba, Toro Negro State Forest, trail to Tower 3, Oct 1994, Nieves-Rivera, Santos-Flores & Betancourt (MAPR; NY as Psilocybe plutonia). Mun. Río Grande, Mountains Luquillo, El Verde Research Area, 18 Sep 1999, Rosa & Prieto (PR-3539); Carrasquillo (PR-3537); 19 Feb 1998, Laboy (PR-4862). Caribbean National Forest, Sabana, 3 Jun 1998, Baroni 8744 (CORT); El Yunque, Caimitillo Trail, 29 Jun 1991, Baroni 7983 (CORT); El Verde, 19 Jun 1996, Baroni 7900 (CORT). La Mina Research Area, La Coca Trail, 25 Jun 1997, Llorens, Bonilla & Cantrell (PR-4834); 23 May 2000, Cantrell & Salgado, ledger Cantrell PR-0019 (PR-6166); 26 Nov 1999, Salgado & Argüello-López (PR-5922). Caimitillo Trail, 6 Jun 1997, Llorens (PR-4325); Nieves-Rivera, Llorens & Serrano (PR-4392); 19 Jun 1997, Nieves-Rivera, Llorens & Serrano (PR-4392); 19 Jun 1997, Nieves-Rivera, Llorens & Serrano (PR-4393); Nieves-Rivera, Llorens, Serrano & Bonilla, ledger Nieves-Rivera PR-791 (PR-4394); 11 Jul 1997, Baroni, ledger Nieves-Rivera 796 (PR-4400). Mount Britton Trail, 15 Jul 1997, Llorens & Rodríuez (PR-4835). El Toro Trail, 2 Jul 1997, Cantrell, Nieves-Rivera, Serrano & Llorens (PR-4840). Mun. Luquillo, Luquillo Mountains, Bisley Watersheads, trail to tower, 6 Jun 1997, Lodge (PR-4399); 26 Jun 1997, Llorens (PR-4841). Palo Hueco, El Cacique Area, 10 Jul 1998, Cantrell, Laboy & Negrón, ledger Cantrell PR-9869 (PR-4882); 2 Jul 1999, Cantrell & Laboy (PR-5680). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, Prov. Santiago, Los Montones Convention Center, altitude 800 m, 27 Nov 1999, Baroni 9028 (DR-1064).

    Discussion: The discovery that all collections of Psilocybe guilartensis s have setaceous hyphae at the base of the stipe is a significant addition to the circumscription of this taxon and provides a very helpful character in distinguishing this species. The distinctive pleuro- and cheilocystidia also are important characters that help to define Psilocybe guilartensis. Psilocybe guilartensis is the most common species of Psilocybe collected in Puerto Rico, as evidenced by the numerous collections documenting its abundance. It tends to fruit on bare clay along hiking trails where disturbance has occurred. Its relative abundance might be the result of being collected in readily accessible areas.
    The record from the Dominican Republic is the first report of this species from the island of Hispaniola, although this collection (Baroni 9028) lacks the yellowish or grayish opaque pleurocystidia and the brownish or grayish opaque cheilocystidia that are typical of Psilocybe guilartensis. However, the presence of the highly distinctive setaceous hyphae at the base of the stipe indicates this collection has strong phenotypic affinities with Psilocybe guilartensis. The lack of pigments in the hymenial cystidia might be due to the immaturity of the specimens that make up this collection. For now, based on macromorphology, basidiospore morphology and setaceous hyphae at the base of the stipe, we consider this collection as conspecific with Psilocybe guilartensis.
    As pointed out by Guzmána et al (1997) Psilocybe guilartensis belongs in section Brunneocystidiatae because of the pigmented hymenial cystidia, thick-walled rhomboid or subrhomboid basidiospores that are less than 8 µm long and bluing of the basidiomata when injured. The setaceous hyphae at the base of the stipe, the two distinct types of pleuro- and cheilocystidia, especially the hyaline inflated cheilocystidia with encrusted bases and bifurcate branched apices, are features that clearly separate Psilocybe guilartensis from the similar Psilocybe pleurocystidiosa (Guzmán 1983).

    source - www.mycologia.org [95 (6): 1178-1179]

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    Psilocybe heimii

    Psilocybe heimii Guzmán (1978)



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 15-35 mm diam., convex to subumbonate or subcampanulate, even but translucent-striate at the margin when moist, sometimes subrimose with age. glabrous with lobed to irregular margin, subviscid, dark brown to brownish-yellow, hygrophanous, context is pliant, whitish and thin in the pileus and staining blue when handled.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to subadnate, dark brown-violet with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50-80 x 1.5-2.5 (-4) mm. Equal, hollow, whitish to brownish or reddish and covered with small silky whitish fibrils. Veil thin fine silky fibrils on the stipe turning evanescent.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5-) 6-6.5 (-7.7) x 4.9-6.5 (-7) x 3.3-4 µ Rhomboid or subglobose in and subellipsoid in the side with a short basal appendage and with a narrow germ pore. Sporeprint purple-brown violet in deposit.

    Habitat: Solitary or in small groups on humus or muddy soil in deciduous forests of Liquidambar-Quercus at 500-1400 m elevation.

    Distribution: Known only from the subtropical forests of Mexico.

    Season: Fruiting in the summer months of June-August.

    Dosage: Unknown.

    Comment: Pileus, stipe and context staining green-blue to blackish when bruised. This species was named in honor of French mycologist Roger Heim, who along with Dr. Wasson contributed important studies concerning the sacred mushrooms of Mexico.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe heliconiae

    Psilocybe heliconiae Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, Garcí et Velázquez



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 20-30 mm in diam., subcampanulate, subumbonate, lubricous, glabrous, even to striate at the margin, brownish to chocolate brown, finally straw color, hygrophanous.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Sinuate, yellowish, grayish brown to violet brown, with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 35-45 x 4-5 mm, pale brown to yellowish brown, cylindric, slightly thickened at the base, somewhat flexuous, hollow or stuffed of white mycelium, subpruinose to floccose with whitish scales toward the base.
    • Context: Context whitish under the pileus, brownish in the stipe. All parts staining blue green when injured. KOH negative or stains the pileus pale brownish.
    • Odor: And taste farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 5-6.5 (-7.5) x 4-6 µm, subrhomboid or subellipsoid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, thick-walled, yellowish brown, with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: 18-20 x 5-6 µm, 2-, 3 or 4-spored, hyaline, ventricose with a median constriction.
    • Pleurocistidia: (11-) 14-17 x 5-7 (-9) µm, hyaline, subglobose or ventricose.
    • Cheilocystidia: (18-) 19-22 (-24) x (4-) 5-6 µm, abundant, hyaline, sublageniform, ventricose-fusoid or sometimes submoniliform, with a short neck or slightly mucronate at apex.
    • Epicutis: A subgelatinous layer, 80 µm thick, with subparallel hyaline hyphae of 2-3 µm in diam.
    • Trama: Gill trama parallel, with hyaline hyphae. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Solitary or caespitose, on soil in tropical rain forest, at 500-1000 m alt. Known only from the regions of Nariño and Caquetá in Department Antioquía, at Colombia. One of the studied specimens brought from Caquetá (Parra & Echeverry 2), grew at a flowerpot with (Heliconia) in a greenhouse in Medellín.

    Studied material: COLOMBIA, Departamento Antioquia, Nariñ region, Puente Linda, Sept. 15, 1990, G. Parra s.n. (holotype HUA, isotype XAL) Caquetá region, Aug. 30, 1990, G. Parra & B. Echeverry 2 (HUA, XAL).

    Discussion: The form and size of the pleurocystidia separate this species from Psilocybe wrightii Guzmán and Psilocybe brasiliensis Guzmán, the former only known from central Argentina and the second from the Sao Paulo Region in Brazil (Guzmán, 1983). These species including Psilocybe heliconiae belong to Sect. Cordispora.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [51: 229-230]

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    Psilocybe herrerae

    Psilocybe herrerae Guzmán (1978)



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.8-1 (1.9) cm broad. Conic to convex, sometimes papillate. Surface smooth to dry, finely fibrillose-rimose. Brown to sepia brown, hygrophanous, fading in drying to yellowish, sometimes with bluish tones. Flesh white, bruising bluish where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, becoming purplish brown to brownish violet at spore maturity.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-80 (110) mm long by 1-2.5 mm thick. Equal overall, slightly narrowing near the apex and tapering into a long pseudorhiza. Brownish or nearly the same color as the cap, quickly bruising bluish, especially from the base upwards. Surface covered with fragile fibrillose-floccose patches.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid in side view and subrhomboid in face view, 5-6 by 3.3-4.9 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 12-25 by 6-8.8 µm, primarily fusoid-ventricose, few are ventricose-rostrate with an abbreviated neck.
    • Cheilocystidia: 13-23 (27) by 5.5-7.7 µm variable in form, 7-11 by 1.5-2.5 µm, sometimes irregularly forking.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious, often along road cuts, in soils high in sand and clay, and in open forests dominated by pines, sweetgums, and oaks. Found in June and July in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Comment: Judging by the rapid bluing reaction, Psilocybe herrerae is probably potent, but it has not yet been analyzed. The long pseudorhiza delineates this species from most others. See also Psilocybe wassoniorum, macroscopically similar (except for the length of the pseudorhiza) but lacking pleurocystidia.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe hispanica

    Psilocybe hispanica Guzmán (2000)



    The Psilocybe hispanica is a new species discoverd by Ignacio Seral in 98' growing high in the hills of spain. It tends to grow in colder temps, and has even been seen growing in snow. This mushroom was fround growing on horse dung, next to patches of Psilocybe semilanceata's. The discoverer of the Psilocybe hispanica contacted Paul Stamets last October, unfortuanatly Stamets schedule was to full and a European mycologist named Giorgio Samorini from Italy flew to spain and did some research to find this was a whole new mushroom and classified it as the Psilocybe hispanica. Rumor also has it this mushroom will be featured in Paul Stamets next book Psilocybe Mushrooms of the World, Part 2 (cant wait for that one, I'm sure it will be another excellent book by Paul). We do have spore prints of this species currently, and may have some syringes soon. Its potency is said to be a very nice clean high, more potent then cubensis, but less potent then azures, more closely to that of Panaeolus species.
    Some more detailed information from Ignacio on this mushrooms growing conditions.
    The hispanica appears in horse dung about the 1 of october and finish about the 1 of november.... at 1700- 2000 metres high.... the latitude of spain makes the altitude date more relevant... keep in mind that in those mountains water become ice at night and the hispanicas resist freezing temps very well so there is a very cold temps at night about +5 to -5 at night and +5 to 20 at the daytime always celsius degrees.
    New information from a Psilocybe hispanica fruiting in San Francisco, CA, USA Feb, 2000 !!!!
    Yes.. the Psilocybe hispanica has been fruited now !!! A big atta boy goes out to Raja from San Francisco for fruiting the Psilocybe hispanica. What amazed me is it only took 3 months from inoculation to fruiting. Most of us were assuming a year long outdoor bed, so this is great news for us to get motivated on this new species.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe hoogshagenii

    Psilocybe hoogshagenii Heim (1958)


    synonyms:

    Psilocybe caerulipes var. gastonii Singer
    Psilocybe zapotecorum Heim sensu Singer
    Psilocybe semperviva Heim and Callieux

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (0.7) 1-2.5 (3) cm broad. Conic to campanulate to convex with an acute, extended papilla (up to 4 mm long). Surface slightly viscid when wet, smooth, often ridged halfway to the disc. Reddish brown to orangish brown to yellowish, hygrophanous, fading in drying to straw colored, and bruising blue or blue black.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, pale brown to coffee colored, and eventually purplish black at maturity.
    • Stem/Stipe: (30) 50-90 (110) mm long by 1-3 mm thick. Equal to slightly thickened near the base, flexuous, sometimes twisted. Whitish to brownish red near the base, easily bruising bluish to bluish black. Partial veil thinly cortinate, fragile, soon disappearing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, rhomboid to subrhomboid, (5) 6.5-8 (9.6) by 4-5.6 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored, rarely 2-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 16-36 by 8-12 µm, ventricose to clavate, often irregular.
    • Cheilocystidia: (15) 19-35 by 4.4-6.6 µm, lageniform, narrowing into a long neck 1-3 µm, either acute or subcapitate at the apex.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious in muddy clay soils in subtropical coffee plantations. Found in June and July in Mexico (Puebla, Oaxaca, and Chiapas) and in February in Argentina. Also reported from Brazil and Colombia.

    Comment: Moderately active. Specimens from Brazil yielded up to 0.30% psilocybin and 0.30% psilocin (Stijve and de Meijer 1993). A variety of this mushroom, Psilocybe hoogshagenii Heim var. convexa Guzmán is only slightly umbonate, has a convex cap, and is conspecific with Psilocybe semperviva Heim i Callieux. This variety is most common in the state of Puebla, Mexico, and to a lesser degree in the states of Oaxaca and Hidalgo, fruiting from June to August. One of the most unusual looking Psilocybes yet discovered, this mushroom is quite potent. Heim and Hofmann (1958) found 0.60% psilocybin and 0.10% psilocin (as Psilocybe semperviva Heim and Caillieux) from cultivated specimens. Guzmán (1983) reported that this mushroom grows at 1000-1800 meters in elevation (Argentina) and is commonly seen by coffee growers who report massive flushes coming up in unison and soon disappearing. See also Psilocybe brasiliensis.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe inconspicua

    Psilocybe inconspicua Guzmán & Horak



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 5-10 mm diam., convex with conical papilla, margin incurved in young carpophores, pale or deep ochre brown or brown, margin estriate, dry, glabrous, membranaceous, without veil remnants.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Broadly adnate to occasionally subdecurrent, very densely crowded, argillaceous, edges white and sometimes conspicuously fimbriate.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-25 by 0.5-1 mm, cylindrical, fragile, brittle, concolorous with pileus or paler, covered with white fibrils of the veil, base white from mycelium, often with white rhizoids, dry, solid.
    • Context: Context thin, concolorous with pileus.
    • Odor: And taste not distinctive. Spore print brown.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 5.5-6.5 (-7) by (3.5) 4-5 by 3.3-3.8 µm, subrhombic (dorso-ventral) to subelliptical (lateral), yellowish brown (KOH), smooth, thin-walled membrane, germ pore and apiculus distinct.
    • Basidia: 17.5-22 by 5.5-6.5 µm, subpyriform, hyaline, 4-spored.
    • Cheilocystidia: 20-30 by 7-14 µm, broadly fusoid to vesiculose, brownish (KOH), rarely hyaline, membrane thin-walled, forming sterile gill-edge.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent. Hyphae of subhymenium and trama irregularly encrusted with orange yellow (KOH) pigment.
    • Epicutis: A cutis of subgelatinized, brownish (KOH) parallel hyphae, encrusted with brown (KOH) pigment.
    • Hypodermium: Subcutis of cylindrical, hyaline, pigmentless hyphae. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious in small groups on soil among litter in Araucaria cunninghamii. Known from Papua New Guinea only.

    Studied material: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, Morobe District, Bulolo, Susu; 15. I. 1973, leg. HORAK (Holotype ZT, 72/751; isotype in ENCB).

    Discussion: This small Psilocybe is a very distinct species. Psilocybe inconspicua has no obvious relationships to other taxa of this genus except with some species described by Guzmán (1977) from the tropical forests of Mexico. The brownish cheilocystidia represent the most prominent taxonomic character. Due to its systematic position it is likely that Psilocybe inconspicua is an hallucinogenic fungus.

    source - www.sydowia.at [31: 50-51]

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    Psilocybe inquilina

    Psilocybe inquilina (Fries ex Fries) Bresadola


    synonyms:
    Deconica inquilina (Fries) Romagn.
    Psilocybe ecbola (Fries) Singer
    Psilocybe muscorum (P.D. Orton) M.M. Moser 1967


    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (0.5) 1-2 cm broad. Hemispheric to convex, expanding to broadly convex to nearly plane to slightly umbonate. Reddish brown to brick brown to tan or yellowish brown, hygrophanous, fading in color to straw. Margin translucent-striate most way to the disc when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle, becoming opaque in drying, and sometimes decorated with whitish floccose scales.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to subdecurrent, reddish brown to purplish gray-brown, with concolorous edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-40 mm long by 1.5-2 mm thick. Equal, flexuous, hollow, whitish to reddish brown, adorned with whitish to brown firbils toward the base, which often has whitish mycelium attached. Partial veil cortinate, soon desappearing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Purplish brown in deposit, 7-8.8 (10) by 4.5-6.6 µm, subrhomboid to subellipsoid in face view, subellipsoid in side view
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: Lageniform to sublageniform, (15) 18-38 na 5-8 µm, with a long neck 2.5-3.8 µm broad.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious, commonly on the base of grass stems in open areas, occasionally on rotting twigs or in rich soils. A temperate species, Psilocybe inquilina is widely distributed, reported from North America (California, Oregon, and Washington), South America (Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay), and Europe (Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Sweden, and Switzerland). Undoubtedly more widely distributed than presently reported.

    Comment: Not known to be active. I frequently find Psilocybe inquilina growing from the bases of matted, rotting grass in the fall. The mushrooms are difficult to harvest without either the stems breaking or clumps of dead grass being pulled up with each specimen. This feature, combined with the nearly decurrent gills, the convex cap, and the deeply translucent-striate margins, distinguishes this species macroscopically. See also Psilocybe crobula and Psilocybe montana.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe jacobsii

    Psilocybe jacobsii Guzmán



    Psilocybe jacobsii Guzmán was described in the Sect. Cordispora from Mexico (Guzmán, 1983), based on its well developed annulus. After examination of the type (at ENCB) and the relating notes, it is considered that it is a good representative of the Sect. Stuntzii.

    source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 119]

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    Psilocybe kumaenorum

    Psilocybe kumaenorum R.Heim (1967)



    Discussion: Psilocybe kumaenorum is known as koull tourroum, kougltourroum or koobl tourroum in Yuwi [Heim 1967] (Yoowi [REAY 1959]), the language of the Kuma (Heim 1967: 186; Heim 1978). However, Heim (1967: 186) suggested that the Kuma used these names for a variety of different mushrooms, so they are possibly of little use in distinguishing P. kumanorum from other mushroom species found at Kondambi.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 5-7 mm in diameter, peak mamillate and punctate, but not papillate, flattened and very irregular, with an edge largely lobed/notched, often fairly roughly, rolling up tightly at the beginning; at first campanulate and entirely black-brown, then darkish crimson/purple around the circumference (K. 65) with a centre of flesh-coloured cream (128C/153C) or orange colour; sometimes with subtle greenish tones; orange-yellow, cream or light ochre (K. 157'162) or greenish (+ K.245) at the peak of the mamilla; at the edges marked with not very thick but clear stripes of a very dark violet (K.544 dark); very hygrophanous, blanching quickly (cream), as demonstrated by the desiccation of little whitish spots. Flesh brownish, with the scent of flour (Heim 1967: 186).
    • Gills/Lamellae: Firstly cream, then ochre, then mauve/mallow or pale orange-mauve (K.109 light), finally violet with purple tint (+ K.105), at the edges white and remaining so; adnexed. Psilocybe kumaenorum lacks pleurocystidia (Guzmán 1983; Guzmán et al. 1991: 508).
    • Stem/Stipe: Reaching 2.7 cm , 1.3 mm width, 2.5 mm at the base which is lightly but clearly bulging; at first white and marked with fine, very straight longitudinal furrows, of greyish brown, silvery at the top where there are fine remnants of a delicate, silky, white cortina; at the bottom: hollow, with a violet-red cortex, light green on the exterior (K.303 C) or grey tending slightly towards blue (K.325); flesh orange yellow (K.137).
    Habitat: Grassy, humid places around the village of Kondambi, circa late August, 1963 (Heim 1967: 186). Psilocybe kumaenorum grows on soil in small groups and in open places among grass (Allen et al. 1991: 65).

    source - www.shaman-australis.com

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    Psilocybe liniformans

    Psilocybe liniformans Guzmán & Bas (1977)



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-2.5 cm broad. convex to broadly convex, sometimes broadly umbonate. Smooth, viscid when moist from a separate gelatinous pellicle. Dull grayish ochraceous brown or olive colored. Hygrophanous, fading in drying and becoming straw-brown. Staining blue-green.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed, close to distant, dark chocolate brown to purplish brown.
    • Stem/Stipe: 14-30 mm long x 1-2 mm thick. Equal to swelled at base. Whitish to pale brownish and staining blue when injured.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Sporeprint dark grayish-purple brown.

    Habitat: Scattered to gregarious on horse dung or in manure enriched soil in meadows and pastures.

    Distribution: Washington and Oregon. Probably in British Columbia, Canada.

    Season: Summer through autumn.

    Dosage: Weakly to moderately active. 10 to 20 fresh specimens.

    Comment: Another rare species from the Pacific Northwest of the United States. A similar species, Psilocybe liniformans Guzmán i Bas var. liniformans is common in the Netherlands.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe luteonitens

    Psilocybe luteonitens (Fr.) Park.-Rhodes 1951


    synonyms:
    Stropharia umbonatescens (Peck) Saccardo
    Stropharia luteonitens, [RSD]


    probably nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-4 cm broad. Conic-campanulate with a distinct umbo, expanding to convex to broadly convex to nearly plane with or without an acute-to-low umbo. Margin decorated with fragile whitish remnants of the partial veil. Yellowish to pale ochraceous brown toward the disc. Surface viscid when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle. Flesh thin, pallid.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to subdecurrent, close, broad. Color whitish at first, then grayish, and eventually purplish brown.
    • Stem/Stipe: 35-70 mm long by 2-4 mm thick. Equal and slender. Pallid to yellowish, lighter than the cap. Surface powdered above the annular region, and initially covered with fine fibrils below, but often smooth with age. Partial veil thinly membranous, floccose, leaving an obscure evanescent annular zone of fibrils, if at all.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid to ellipsoid, 15-19 (22) by 10-11 µm.
    • Basidia: 2-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 25-45 by 3-7 µm, cylindrical to sublageniform with a flexuous, elongated apex.

    Habitat: Gregarious on dung in the fall in the Pacific Northwest. Reported from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Michigan, and New York in the summer to early fall. Also reported from Mexico, Europe, and Asia.

    Comment: The habitat preference, distinctly umbonate and yellowish cap, and the white membranous partial veil all make this species easy to recognize. Additionally, the veil remnants usually adhere to the cap margin rather than the stem, especially evident when young. See also Psilocybe semiglobata and Psilocybe fimetaria.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe magnivelaris

    Psilocybe magnivelaris (Peck) Noordel. 1995


    synonyms:
    Leratiomyces magnivelaris (Peck) Bridge & Spooner
    Psilocybe percevalii (Berkeley i Broome) Orton
    Stropharia percevalii (Berkeley i Broome) Saccardo
    Stropharia magnivelaris Peck
    Nematoloma magnivelaris (Peck) Singer


    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1,5-6 cm broad. Obtusely umbonate to campanulate to convex, expanding to broadly convex to plane and often umbonate, with an elevated margin in age. Surface viscid when moist from a thin gelatinous pellicle, smooth, covered with scattered, white, floccose scales, increasing towards margin. Pale grayish yellow to ochraceous to brownish orange, and darker towards the disc, not strongly hygrophanous.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to sinuate, broad, close, pallid, white at first, soon grayish brown and finally dark purplish brown with whitish fringed margins.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50-85 mm long by 4-7 mm thick. Hollow, equal to enlarged towards the apex and tapering below. White to dingy yellowish. Partial veil membranous, leaving a thick, white membranous annulus, often flaring, which can deteriorate into an annular zone, below which the surface can be covered with fibrillose patches. Flesh moderately thick, firm, whitish, and not bruising.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, smooth, ellipsoid 13-15 by 6-8 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 33-44 by 4-5 µm, nearly clavate to sublageniform, with an elongated neck 3-4 µm thick.

    Habitat: Scattered to gregarious, preferring sandy soils, alluvial plains, and/or soils rich in woody debris of Salix (willow) and Almus (alder). Found from May to November in the United States (Alaska, Washington, Oregon, possibly Colorado), northern Europe, and the British Isles. Likely to be much more widely distributed than presently reported.

    Comment: Not active, edibility unknown. The well-developed membranous annulus, the nonbluing flesh, its modest size, and its habitat, all give clues to its identification. This mushroom is similar to Psilocybe squamosa and Psilocybe thrausta, and can be separated with certainty by the length of the cheilocystidia. Stropharia riparia is generally similar. See also Psilocybe subaeruginascens.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe mairei

    Psilocybe mairei Singer (1973)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe maire Singer sensu Guzmán
    Hypholoma cyanescens Maire

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1,5-3,5 cm broad. Convex to campanulate to conic-campanulate, expanding with age, but not umbonate. Surface viscid when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle. Orangish brown, becoming olive toned, hygrophanous, fading in drying to yellowish white. Flesh amber, bruising bluish where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, pallid at first, soon darkening, becoming purplish brown with the edges remaining whitish fringed.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-75 mm long by 2-5 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarged towards the base. Whitish to yellowish white, bruising bluish where injured. Surface pruinose above and finely fibrillose below.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, elongate-ellipsoid, 10-12 (13.5) by 5.5-7 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent or near to gill edge.
    • Cheilocystidia: 30-40 by 6-8 µm. Variable in form: lageniform, fusiform, or ampullaceous.

    Habitat: Known only from North Africa (Morocco and Algeria) in October through December. Grows gregariously on soil rich in woody debris, in forests mixed with pine (Pinus pinaster), fir (Abies pinsapo) and oak (Quercus ilicis and Quercus pyrenaica). The identification of collections from Europe as Psilocybe mairei are doubtful, and according to Guzmán' (1983) were probably Psilocybe serbica and allies.

    Comment: Probably potent, judging by the bluing reaction, although no analyses have been published. This is the only wood-decomposing, bluing Psilocybe reported from North Africa. Prior to the expansion of the Sahara desert, North Africa enjoyed a moister climate and undoubtedly hosted many more mushrooms than are known today. One wonders if Psilocybe mairei is a surviving remnant of a species that was once much more common. I am reminded of the cave art representing a beelike shaman undergoing a mushroom experience from the Tassili plateau in Northern Algeria, and I'm struck by the fact that this is the only species of Psilocybe presently known in that area. Given that the Tassili plateau was running with rivers at the time the artist lived, the alluvial plains would have been perfect for supporting species like Psilocybe mairei. Could this have been the mushroom the artist used? See also Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe serbica, and allies.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe makarorae

    Psilocybe makarorae P.R.Johnst. & P.K.Buchanan (1995)



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.5-3.5 cm in diameter. Conic to campanulate, expanding in age to broadly convex, usually with a pronounced umbo. Surface tacky to dry. Yellowish brown to orangish brown, fading in drying, and lighter towards the margin, which is striate when moist. Flesh whitish, bruising greenish blue where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnexed, pale grayish brown with concolorous edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-60 mm long by 2-4 mm thick, equal, white to brownish near the base, which radiates white rhizomorphs. Partial veil cortinate, leaving fibrillose veil remnants along the cap margin when young, soon disappearing, but not forming an annular ring on the stem. Surface finely fibrillose and silky.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, ellipsoid in side view, ovoid to subrhomboid in face view, (6.5) 7.5-10 by 4.5-6.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Similar to cheilocystidia ventricose-rostrate to mucronate, 4-8 µm thick, with a simple neck, 2.5-4 µm long.
    • Cheilocystidia: 18-26 by 6-9 µm, ventricose-rostrate to mucronate with a short, simple neck 3-5 µm long.

    Habitat: Found scattered to gregarious on rotting wood and twigs (Nothofagus) near lakes and picnic grounds in the vicinity of Makarora, New Zealand (Otago Lakes and Franz Josef Glacier) in the fall. Probably more widely distributed.

    Comment: Potency unknown but probably moderately active given the bluing reaction. This newly described species by Johnston and Buchanan (1996) resembles Psilocybe caerulipes, but the presence of pleurocystidia and longer-necked cheilocystidia delineates Psilocybe makarorae from this taxon. Worthy of note is that the two authors work closely with, are consulted by, and paid by law-enforcement officials to help in the prosecution of unlucky collectors. See also Psilocybe australiana, Psilocybe eucalypta, Psilocybe subaeruginosa.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe mammillata

    Psilocybe mammillata (Murrill) A. H. Sm. 1948



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (0.5) 1-3 (1.5) broad. Conic, expanding to campanulate at maturity, and often umbonate. When moist, surface smooth, slightly striate near the margin, which is often adorned with minute remnants of the partial veil. Reddish brown to brownish olivaceous, hygrophanous, fading to beige or dirty yellowish orange from the disc, occasionally with blackish tones. Flesh pale brown, bruising bluish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnexed, pale brown to dark purplish brown, thin, with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 15-30 mm long by 1-2 mm thick. Equal to slightly swelling at the base from which white mycelium radiates. Yellowish at first, soon reddish brown with maturity, often retaining whitish patches near the base. Flesh reddish brown, bruising bluish where injured. Partial veil cortinate, fragile, soon disappearing in age.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid in side view, rhomboid to subrhomboid in face view, 5-6.5 (8) by 3.5-5.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent or only near to the gill edge.
    • Cheilocystidia: 12-17 by 4.5-5 µm, fusoid-ventricose with elongated necks, 3.3-5 by 1-2.5 µm.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious, infrequently cespitose, in soils rich in woody debris, in humus, and sometimes on clay soils. Found along trails, shady banks, and in coffee plantations. Discovered by Dr. Thiers in Florida Highlands Hammock State Park). Also reported from Jamaica, Mexico, and Bolivia.

    Comment: Guzmán et al. (1993) reports that this species is active, although no analyses are cited. The classic bluing reaction leaves little doubt about its activity, although estimation of potency would be purely speculative. This mushroom is probably widely distributed throughout much of Florida but goes unrecognized by most hunters of the more massive Psilocybe cubensis.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe merdaria

    Psilocybe merdaria (Fr.) Ricken


    synonyms:
    Agaricus merdarius Fr.
    Stropharia merdaria (Fr.) Quél.
    Geophila merdaria (Fr.) Quél.
    Fungus merderius (Fr.) Kuntze
    Psalliota merdaria (Fr.) Henn.
    Deconica merdaria (Fr.) Noordel.


    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-4 cm broad. Campanulate-hemispheric to convex to broadly convex, and sometimes slightly umbonate, finally expanding to place with age. Margin translucent-striate when moist, and often appendiculate with remnants of the thin partial veil. Cinnamon brown to livid brown when moist, fading to ochraceous or yellowish brown, and remaining darker at the disc. Surface smooth and only moist to subviscid when wet.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to subdecurrent, close to broad. Yellowish at first, darkening with spore maturity to a dark brown.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-40 mm long by 1-3 mm thick. Pale yellowish to pallid. Surface covered by fine, dry fibrils. Flesh stuffed with a fibrous pith, tough, but soon becoming hollow. Partial veil thinly membranous, fugacious, soon deteriorating to an annular zone of fibrils in the median to lower regions of the stem, usually darkened by spores.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purple-brown in deposit, subellipsoid, 10-14 by 7-9 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 20-33 by 6.6-8.8 µm, fusoid-ventricose to sublageniform with a short neck 3.3-4.4 µm thick.

    Habitat: Scattered to numerous on dung. Reported from California, Oregon, Washington, and the northern Midwest of the United States. Widely spread throughout the world, this mushroom has been collected in Canada, Europe, the former USSR, and Japan. Psilocybe merdaria is probably more widespread than the literature presently indicates. It prefers a temperate zone..

    Comment: Not known to be active; not sufficiently studied for chemical content. In temperate zones, Psilocybe merdaria is common dung dweller, along with Psilocybe semiglobata and Psilocybe papilionaceus. The annulus is typically located in the lower regions of the stem, or at most mid distance, but not superior. This species is virtually identical to Psilocybe moelleri, which has larger spores: 13-14 (16) by 7-8 µm. See also Psilocybe coprophila and Psilocybe subviscida.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe meridensis

    Psilocybe meridensis Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (10-) 15-30 mm diam, conical to convex or subcampanulate, subpapillate or subumbonate, lubricous, even, slightly striate at the margin, yellowish brown or reddish brown, becoming paler towards the margin, readily turning blue-green to blackish when bruised or old.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate or sinuate, yellowish gray to brownish violet or dark brown sepia, edges whitish and subfloccoses; turning blue-green to blackish when bruised.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-80 x 3-5 mm, equally cylindrical or slightly thickened at the base, somewhat flexuous, hollow, whitish to irregularly reddish brown or blackish, readily turning blue-green when injured, covered by whitish floccose little scales, mainly toward the base. Veil well developed, cortinate and white, forming a complex subfibrillose or submembranous annulus, frequently double.
    • Context: Context pallid yellow in the pileus and stipe, whitish toward the pileus surface, readily turning blue-green to blackish when cut. Dried basidiomata are completly blackish to black.
    • Odor: Something special but fungus-like, not farinaceous. Taste slightly fungal, subfarinaceous to pungent.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5.5-) 6-7 (-8) x 3-4 x 3-3.5 (-4) µm, subellipsoid or subovoid both in face and side view, brownish yellow, thin-walled, with a broad germ pore at one end and an acute short appendage at the other.
    • Basidia: (16-) 17.5-24 x (4-) 5-6 µm, 4-spored, clavate ventricose, hyaline.
    • Pleurocistidia: (16-) 17.5-27 (-28) x (4-) 5-7 (-9) µm, common, hyaline, subfusoid with acute apex or sublageniform with a short neck.
    • Cheilocystidia: (14,5-) 16-28 (-31) x (4-) 5-6,5 µm, abundant, hyaline, ventricose sublageniform, frequently with a middle constriction with a short or long neck, sometimes bifurcate.
    • Subhymenium: Not well differentiated.
    • Trama: of gill regular, formed by hyaline to pale yellow hyphae, thin-walled 2.5-13 µm wide.
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized, formed by 2.5-4 µm hyaline to pale yellow parallel hyphae.
    • Hypodermium: With hyaline or pale yellow hyphae or subglobose elements 5-17 µm, wide, thin to thick-walled. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious on soil, in a subtropical forest ("bosque ombrofilo montano siempre verde") with Cyathea and Blechnum at 2400 m of elevation. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: VENEZUELA:: Márida State, Parque Sierra Nevada, Telefárico de Márida, La Montana Station, May 23, 1993, Marcano & Guzmán s.n. (Guzmán 30806), (Holotype Herb. Univ. de Los Andes, Fac. Farmacia 8001; izotyp XAL).

    Discussion: The presence of an annulus relates this species to Psilocybe argentipes Yokoyama from Japan and Psilocybe graveolens Peck from U.S., but the former has no pleurocystidia and the latter has broader spores [4.5-5(-6) µm] and hyaline to brownish pleurocystidia. Its habit is similar to that of Psilocybe zapotecorum and Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata, but those species have no annulus, and the pleurocystidia are vesiculose submucronate or subfusiform, 5.5-14 µm wide in the former, and 3-6.5 µm wide in the latter. The strong blue-green to blackish or black reaction in all parts of the basidiome, including the gills, as well as the pungent taste, are two conspicuous features of Psilocybe meridensis.

    source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 103-105]

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    Psilocybe mescaleroensis

    Psilocybe mescaleroensis Guzmán, Walstad, E. Gándara & Ram.-Guill.





    DESCRIPTION 1

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 20-60 mm, convex to subumbonate, brownish-yellow, hygrophanous, margin striate when moist, often with an orangish center, broad umbo and wavy margin. Has a separable gelatinous pellicle. Bruising bluish where damaged.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Cream color when young, chocolate brown in age, with adnate to adnexed attachment.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50-100 mm long, 5 do 20 mm thick, white, sometimes with light orange patches, fibrillose, equal to slightly enlarged near the top. Annulus fragile and membranous, white or dusted with dark brown spores. Stem base with rhizomorphic mycelium. Bluing where damaged.
    • Odor: And taste slightly farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark chocolate brown, subrhomboid to subovoid, thick-walled, 9-12 x 6-8 µm.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 20-30 x 6 µm, fusiform or ventricose-rostrate, sometimes forked.

    Habitat: Grows scattered to gregariously on dead grasses, in grasslands and savanna near ponderosa pine woodlands, often near gopher holes. Found in the summer and fall in the Sierra Blanca range of New Mexico, near Mescalero, New Mexico. So far it has only been collected in or near the type locality.

    source - www.wikipedia.org



    DESCRIPTION 2

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (20-) 30-45 (-60) mm diam, convex to subumbonate, margin frequently wavy, pale brownish-yellow (4A3-4) to darker (4B5-7), frequently with the disc more orange (4A7-8), hygrophanous, changing to pale brownish (close to 9E2), translucent striate when wet, pellicle gelatinous, separable.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to adnexed, dirty whitish (4A2) to pale brownish-gray (4B4-5) or brownish-rose (6A3), finally dark chocolate (7E4-5), edges concolorous. Annulus close joined to the surface of the stipe, slightly membranaceous, white or getting the color of the spore print on the upper surface, ephemeral.
    • Stem/Stipe: (50-) 60-70 (-100) x 5-8 (-20) mm, cylindrical, equal or thicker toward the apex, flexuous, fibrillose, solid to hollow, whitish to irregularly orange (5A7) or orangish-pink (close to 7A3-4), base somewhat rhizomorphic, frequently strigose. All the basidioma bluing, except lamellae.
    • Context: Whitish to pale grayish (4A2-3), with slight farinaceous odor and taste.
    • Odor: And taste slightly farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (9-) 10-11 (-13) x 6-7 (-8) x 6-7 µm, subrhomboid or subovoid in face-view, subovoid in side-view, thick-walled, wall up to 1 µm thick, yellowish-brown, with a distinct and broad germ pore at distal pole and a short asymmetric appendage in the other. Spore print dark chocolate (7E-4).
    • Basidia: 35-39 x 7,5-9 µm, 4-spored, subclaviform, hyaline.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: (16-) 19-27 (-30) x 5-8 µm, hyaline, fusiform, ventricose-rostrate, regular or irregularly in shape, rarely irregularly branched.
    • Trama: hymenophoral regular, hyphae 4-5 µm wide, thin-walled, hyaline to yellowish.
    • Epicutis: an ixocutis up to 155 µm thick, hyphae 2-5 µm, wide, thin-walled, hyaline.
    • Subhymenium: Subcellular, hyaline to yellowish. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Rarely solitary, frequently scattered to gregarious, also caespitose on rich soil or decaying grasses, in grasslands near to a Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson forest, commonly associated with the holes of gophers. Observed in summer and autumn. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: UNITED STATES, New Mexico: Mescalero Range, Sierra Blanca, Lincoln Co., near town Mescalero, July 2004, Walstad s.n. (holotype XAL, isotype NY).

    Discussion: This new species belongs to section Stuntzii Guzmán (Guzmán 1983), because of the subrhomboid, thick-walled basidiospores, presence of an annulus, and the bluing feature. It differs from Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & J. Ott (Guzmán 1983, Guzmán & Ott 1976) for its more robust basidiomata with subradicating and strigose stipe bases and cheilocystidia lacking elongate and flexuous necks. Psilocybe stuntzii has a (5-) 10-20 (-35) mm diam pileus and lageniform cheilocistidia with long necks (Guzmán & Ott 1976). Also Psilocybe stuntzii is known only from the Pacific regions of Canada and the USA. Although information gathered by Walstad and friends is somewhat confusing, it is probable that Psilocybe mescaleroensis had or still has a sacred use among Indians.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [99: 225-226]

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    Psilocybe mexicana

    Psilocybe mexicana Heim 1957



    Sclerotia giving strain see: P. mexicana A.
    Mushrooms giving strain see: P. mexicana B.

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    Psilocybe mexicana „A“

    Psilocybe mexicana „A“ Heim 1957



    Psilocybe mexicana grows solitary to gregarious in meadows, often in horse pastures and in soils rich in manure. It is most common at 1000-1800 m in elevation. This species is found in June through September in subtropical Mexico.
    This species was highly sought after for years because of it's sclerotia forming abilities. The two mexicana strains we sell were originally brought into circulation by Sporeworks.

    On sterilised grass seed, rice and millet the 'A' strain produces large sclerotia, hardened mycelial structures that contain psilocybin and psilocin. Sclerotia usually enlarge until about 3 months after inoculation after which they can be harvested.
    Mushroom production is limited and few mushrooms can be harvested. However, large sclerotia form in the casing soil of fruiting trays. If you are interested in growing mushrooms of the Psilocybe mexicana we recommend you look at the 'B' strain.
    The 'B' strain does not produce sclerotia in uncased substrates, only in the casing layer of fruiting trays. This strain does produce massive flushes of mushrooms.
    The mycelium of the 'A' strain forms typical rings of sclerotia on malt extraxt agar. Sclerotia can be planted and mushrooms can form directly from them.
    In our standard jars with 110 grams of grass seed and 180 ml of water it produces an average of 90 grams fresh weight in 3 months. This species can also be succesfully grown in autoclavable spawnbags.

    Experiments have yet to determine the optimal substrate for this strain but so far grass seed, millet and rice have proven to be useful. Undoubtly there are more substrates that support sclerotia formation better than those three.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Sterilised grass seed, millet and rice.
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 24-27°C / 22-24°C
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    Psilocybe mexicana „B“

    Psilocybe mexicana „B“ Heim 1957



    Psilocybe mexicana grows solitary to gregarious in meadows, often in horse pastures and in soils rich in manure. It is most common at 1000-1800 m in elevation. This species is found in June through September in subtropical Mexico.
    This species was highly sought after for years because of it's sclerotia forming abilities. The two mexicana strains we sell were originally brought into circulation by Sporeworks.

    This strain gives out abundant amount of mushroom and sclerotia on cased substrates of grass seed. The strain does not produce sclerotia invitro.
    If you are interested in growing sclerotia in vitro, we recommend you to look at the "A" strain. The "A" strain produce a lot of sclerotia on uncased substrates but gives off little of mushrooms.
    This mushroom is weak reproducer, to obtain good spores, we suggest you to wait untill caps will curl up completely.

    source - www.mushmush.nl

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

    Growth parameters:

    Substrate:
    Sterilised grass seed, millet and rice.
    Temperature:
    colonisation/fruiting: 24-27°C / 22-24°C
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    Psilocybe microcystidiata

    Psilocybe microcystidiata Guzmán & Bononi


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe zapotecorum Heim emend Guzmán
    Psilocybe aggericola Singer & A.H. Sm.
    Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán
    Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán
    Psilocybe chaconii Guzmán, M. Torres & Ram.-Guill.
    Psilocybe bolivarii Guzmán, Ciencia (Méx.)
    Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosum
    Psilocybe sanctorum
    Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán
    Psilocybe candidipes Singer & A.H. Sm.
    Psilocybe aggericola var. alvaradoi
    Psilocybe zapotecorum f. elongata
    Psilocybe pseudozapotecorum Guzmán

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 7-10 mm diam., conic to campanulate, subviscid, glabrous and smooth to slightly striate at the margin, reddish brown or darker, hygrophanous.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Subadnate, violaceous brown, with whitish floccose edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-30 x 1-2 mm, uniform to somewhat bulbous at the base, brownish to reddish brown, covered by small whitish floccose scales. Annulus absent.
    • Context: Thin, brownish, bluing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5.5-) 6-7 x 3-3.5 (-4) µm, ellipsoid or subellipsoid, both in frontal and lateral view, thin walled, brownish, with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: 10-15 x 4-5 µm, 4-spored, hyaline, subcylindric or ventricose.
    • Pleurocistidia: 10-21 (-24) x 7-10 (-12) µm, abundant, hyaline to somewhat yellowish brown, fusiform, ventricose, globose or napiform.
    • Cheilocystidia: 8-13 x 1,5-3 µm, necks 0.5-1 µm; thick, hyaline, regular or irregularly sublageniform.
    • Subhymenium: With elongated elements strongly pigmented on the walls with irregularly incrusted brown pigment, hyphae up to 15 µm diam.
    • Hypodermium: As in the subhymenium.
    • Trama: Regular, incrusted to hyaline. Pileus surface with elongated parallel hyphae, somewhat incrusted as those of the subhymenium. Clamp connections observed.

    Habitat: Gregarious on soil, only know from the type locality.

    Studied material: BRAZYL, Minas Gerais State, Pouso Alegre, Col. Pedro Küpper, December 1982 (SP-178161 Type).

    Discussion: This species belongs to the Section Zapotecorum because of the structure of the spores and the bluing feature of the fruit body (Guzmán, 1983). It differs from all the species of the Section in its small cheilocystidia, smaller even than those recently described in the same Section (Guzmán, 1982; Cifuentes & Guzmán, 1981) from Mexico.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [19: 345]

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    Psilocybe moravica

    Psilocybe moravica Borov. (2003)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe serbica M.M.Moser & E.Horak (1969)
    Psilocybe bohemica ©ebek (1983)
    Psilocybe arcana Borov. & Hlavácek (2001)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 2,5-3,5 (-7) cm across, hemispherical or conical when young, margin joined to stipe by a cortinate white veil, becoming plane-hemispherical, very obtusely conical, broadly campanulate or conical and margin becoming somewhat mildy wavy. Margin striate when moist. Strongly hygrophanous and fragile with a separate pellicle. Sometimes bluish to bluish green with a blue spot in center of cap. Dark brown when moist, fading to a yellowish-ochraceous or yellow-brown, bluish toned.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Thin, close-spaced, adnate, not subdecurrent, accurate in young and broad with maturity (ventricose). Brown and dark m when mature, with a grey tone and white edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 5-9 (-12) x (0,15) 0,2-0,3 (-0,4) cm, cylindrical, often with a somewhat scabrous surface, Usually lank, less commonly robust, short and distinctly curved and not enlarged at the base. with remains of a partial veil building a fibrillous annular zone. Whitish rhizomorphs at base fibrillating into woody debris Whitish and off white, rarely whole stipe blue-green tinged. Stains blue when bruised.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (10) 11-13,5 (-14,8) x (6-) 6,2-7,0 (-7-8) µm. Brown, ellipsoid, broadly ellipsoid or elongated and somewhat lemon-shaped. Sporeprint purple-brown.

    Habitat: In groups on woody debris in deciduous or mixed forests, in grass on woody debris in soil and underbrush of Utica or Rubus, often in localities disturbed by human influence with accumulation of woody waste.

    Distribution: It has been only reported from five distinct localities int he Czech Republic, 230-700 m above sea level.

    Season: Late September to end of November, or mid December depending on warm autumn months.

    Dosage: Unknown at present.

    Comment: This fungi according to the author smells sweet and spicy not farinaceous and taste rather bitter. 9 specimens of this mushroom from two localities in the Czech Republic were analysed for psilocin/psilocybin content and showed a high concentration of psilocin as compared to a low content of psilocybin. Higher concentrations of indole derivatives were found in fruitbodies obtained from lower elevations. This is the third bluing Psilocybe described in the Czech Republic.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe moseri

    Psilocybe moseri Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-13 mm in diam, subcampanulate to subpapillate, sublubricous, glabrous, even, dark buff to brownish, hygrophanous, very bluish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, pale brown to blackish violet, with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 75-80 x 2-3 µm, flexible, smooth, silky, whitish to brownish, very bluish, subbulbous and with a thick, irregular long pseudorhiza. Veil absent in ripe specimens.
    • Context: Whitish to rufous brown, subfleshy in the pileus, fibrous in the stipe, staining blue when cut.
    • Odor: And taste strongly farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (4-) 5-5.5 (-6.5) x (3-) 3-3.5 x 2.5-3 µm, ellipsoid both in face or side view, thin-walled (no more than 0.5 µm thick), pallid brownish, with a distinct and broad germ pore and an apical short appendage.
    • Basidia: (14.5-) 16-21 x 4-5.5 µm, 4-spored, hyaline, vesiculose, cylindric or subclavate.
    • Pleurocistidia: 12-16 (-17) x (4-) 5-5.5 µm, hyaline, common, vesiculose and mucronate.
    • Cheilocystidia: Of two types, a) (17-) 18.5-34.5 (-37) x (4-) 5.5-7 (-8) µm, irregularly cylindric or subvesiculose, hyaline, common, and b) 12-21.5 (-22.5) x 4-5.5 (-6.5) µm, vesiculose mucronate, hyaline and rare.
    • Subhymenium: Not well differentiated.
    • Trama: Regular, with hyaline 3.5-12 (-16) µm wide hyphae.
    • Epicutis: Formed by a subgelatinized layer, with 1.5-4 µm hyphae in diam.
    • Hypodermium: Subcellular, with 4-16 (-20) µm, wide elements, brownish and thick-walled (up to 1,5 µm). Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious and caespitose on soil, in a tropical rain forest, 500 m elevation. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: MEXICO: State of Chiapas, road Ocozocuatla to Apic-Pac (Malpaso Dam), Laguna Bálgica, Sept. 26,1993, Guzmán 30723 (Holotype, XAL).

    Discussion: Etymology - this species is named in honor of Dr. Meinhard Moser (Innsbruck).
    This species belongs to Sect. Zapotecorum because of its thin-walled spores and for the bluing reaction. The peculiar pleurocystidia, the two types of cheilocystidia, the pseudorrhiza, as well as the smaller spores, separate Psilocybe moseri from all the species considered by Guzmán et al. (1988) in this section. Psilocybe moseri is the species with the smallest spores in the section and the only tropical one (the others are from the subtropical highlands or from coniferous forests), which confirms the observations by Guzmán (1979), that the tropical species of Psilocybe have small spores in comparation with the alpine species. For instance, Psilocybe uxpanapensis Guzmán from the tropics, has spores that are (5-) 5.5-6.5 (-7.5) µm long as compared with Psilocybe aztecorum from alpine regions with 12-14 µm long spores.

    source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 105-107]

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    Psilocybe muliercula

    Psilocybe muliercula Singer & A.H.Sm. (1958)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe muliercula Singer and Smith
    Psilocybe wassonii Heim
    Psilocybe mexicana var. brevispora Heim

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.5-4 (5) cm broad. Conic to conic-campanulate, expanding to convex to broadly convex to nearly plane, often undulating and umbonate. Surface smooth, shortly translucent-striate along the margin. Reddish brown to vinaceous brown, hygrophanous, fading in drying to a pale orangish light brown from the center to the margins, which are often tinged bluish green. Flesh whitish, quickly bruising bluish where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnexed to sinuate, close, pale-pinkish brown, becoming dark chocolate brown with spore maturity, with similarly colored or slightly paler edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-60 (100) mm long by 2-7 mm thick. Equal to enlarging upwards, covered with fine fibrillose veil remnants, especially when young, smooth in age. Pale pinkish white, bruising bluish where injured. Partial veil finely cortinate, leaving fragile patches of fibrils, soon disappearing. Flesh pinkish brown, tough, hollow, quickly bruising bluish when handled.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark violaceous brown in deposit, subellipsoid to ellipsoid-ovoid, 6-9.9 by 3.8-4 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 16-24 by 3.5-6 µm, sublageniform with an elongated neck, 1.5-3 µm thick, sometimes forked or mucronate.

    Habitat: Gregarious to cespitose in muddy and swampy soils on the walls of ravines in fir (Abies) and pine (Pinus) woodlands. Found August through September in Mexico (state of Mexico).

    Comment: Potently active, judging by the strength of the bluing reaction. The name Psilocybe wassoni was preempted by Smith and Singer's publication of the name just 24 days prior to the publication of Heim and Wasson's (1958) masterpiece, and given the international rules governing nomenclature, the name first published presides. Since may of Singer's Mexican contacts were provided, in good faith, by Heim and Wasson, this event created a rift between two schools of mycologists that persisted for several decades. Heim and Hofmann (1958) found 0.02% psilocybin and 0.01% psilocin in seven-month-old specimens. Undoubtedly, fresh specimens are many orders of magnitude stronger.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe naematoliformis

    Psilocybe naematoliformis Guzmán (1979)


    synonyms:
    Naematoloma naematoliforme (Guzmán) Guzmán (1980)
    Hypholoma naematoliformis (Guzmán) Guzmán (1999)

    Description: Psilocybe naematoliformis, is a species of fungus in the mushroom family Strophariaceae. It is a psilocybin mushroom, having psilocybin and psilocin as the main active hallucinogenic compounds.
    The species was originally found by mycologist Gastón Guzmán in a tropical rainforest at Uxpanapa Region, in the State of Veracruz in southeastern Mexico; he reported the finding in a 1979 publication, and called the fungus Psilocybe naematoliformis. Guzmán later considered species with chrysocystidia (cystidia whose contents contain a distinct refractive yellow body, that become more deeply yellow when stained with ammonia or other alkaline compounds) to be separate from Psilocybe, and transferred the species first to Naematoloma in 1980, and then later to Hypholoma in 1999. In 2004, Guzmán revised his opinion again, and considered the species more suitably placed in Psilocybe.
    Psilocybe naematoliformis is in the section Neocaledonicae, a group of related tropical and subtropical species in the Psilocybe genus; other members of the section include Psilocybe aequatoriae (Ecuador), Psilocybe neocaledonicum (New Caledonia), and Psilocybe neorhombispora (Mexico).

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-3 cm (0.4-1.2 in) in diameter, bell-shaped to subumbonate, smooth, and slightly slimy but soon dry. The color may range from a pale orange-brown to a deep rusty brown. It is hygrophanous, fading to buff; the color is blackish brown when dry, and slightly translucent-striate when wet. Like other hallucinogenic psilocybes, it stains blue when bruised or injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate in attachment to the stem, or may be notched at the point of attachment (sinuate). They are narrow, and brownish violet to dark violet, with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 3.5-5.5 cm (1.4-2.2 in) tall by 1-3 mm thick, subequal, flexuous, and hollow. The color of the stem is reddish-brown or brownish; it is densely covered with silk-like fibers, and tufts of soft woolly hairs. The veil does not form an annulus.
    • Odor: Slightly farinaceous, like grain, and the taste of this species has been described as slightly bitter.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (3.8)4.9-5.5(6.6) by (3.3)4.4-5(6.6) by 3.8-4.4 µm, sublentiform (shaped somewhat like a biconvex lens) in face view or roughly elliptic in side view, with an inconspicuous hilar appendage. They have a distinct germ pore in the base, and are smooth and thick-walled.
    • Basidia: The spore-bearing cells in the hymenium, are 12-19 by 4.4-5.5 µm, and hyaline.
    • Pleurocistidia: (Cystidia on the gill face) are 15-29 by 5.5-8.8 µm; clear, gray or brown in color, fusoid-ventricose to mucronate, sometimes with a median constriction, similar to the species Psilocybe subaeruginosa Clel. from Australia.
    • Cheilocystidia: (Cystidia on the gill edge) are 12-28 by 5.5-7.7 µm, hyaline, very numerous, ventricose, mucronate or fusiform-lanceolate, often forked.

    Habitat: Psilocybe naematoliformis is found growing in small groups, in tufts or clumps, on disturbed places of the virgin tropical rain forest; it grows in soil with a few herbaceous plants. This species was originally found in Mexico, State of Veracruz, Uxpanapa region.

    source - www.wikipedia.org

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    Psilocybe natarajanii

    Psilocybe natarajanii Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe aztecorum var. bonetii (Guzmán) Guzmán sensu Natarajan & Raman.

    This species differs from Psilocybe aztecorum var. bonetii known only from Mexico, in the size and form of the pleurocystidia. Psilocybe natarajanii has mucronate pleurocystidia 21-28 x 7-10 µm, instead of the 20-45 x 5-8 µm, lageniform pleurocystidia with a long neck found in the Mexican fungus. Psilocybe natarajanii is known only from the type locality. This species is close to Psilocybe pseudoaztecorum (Natarajan & Raman, 1985) (= Psilocybe aztecorum var. aztecorum sensu Natarajan & Raman, 1983), but differs in the smaller spores, 12.5-17 µm long in Psilocybe pseudoaztecorum vs. 10-12.5(-14) µm in Psilocybe natarajanii. The above description is compiled from Natarajan & Raman (1983), because no herbarium material was studied.

    source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 109]

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    Psilocybe neocaledonicum

    Psilocybe neocaledonicum Guzmán & Horak


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe neocaledonica Guzmán & Horak
    Hypholoma neocaledonica (Guzmán & Horak) Guzmán
    Naematoloma neocaledonica (Guzmán & Horak) Guzmán

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 8-11 mm broad, conico-papillate to subconvex, deep brown, fading to pale orange-red or stramineous when drying, not viscid, densely covered with concolorous fibrillose squamules especially towards the striate margin, occasionally also with white minute squamules from the veil along the margin.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Broadly adnate to subdecurrent, often with short tooth, deep chocolate brown to violaceous brown, edges whitish and fimbriate.
    • Stem/Stipe: 12-15 by 1-1.5 mm, cylindrical or rarely subbulbous, pale orange brown, covered with concolorous or whitish fibrils of the veil, but distinct cortina zone or anulus absent, hollow, single.
    • Context: Whitish.
    • Odor: And taste not distinctive.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5) 5.5-6 (-6.5) by 5.5-6 (-6.5) na 4-4.5 µm, rhombic or globose-rhombic, subelliptical in side view, membrane yellowish brown, with broad truncate germ pore.
    • Basidia: 16.5-20 by 4-6.5 µm, 4-spored, hyaline (KOH), subcylindric with slight median constriction.
    • Pleurocistidia: 22-28 by 11-14.5 µm, ventricose-rostrate, apical beak measuring 2-5.5 by 1.5-3.5 µm, hyaline or brownish (KOH), many with hyaline to yellowish refractive pigment-body of irregular shape (like chrysocystidia).
    • Cheilocystidia: 17-27 by 4-6.5 µm, polymorphous (fusiform, subventricose-rostrate or sublageniform), forming dense and sterile turf on gill edge, hyaline (KOH), rarely with hyaline apical oil drop.
    • Subhymenium: With pale orange to brown (KOH) and irregularly distributed pigment.
    • Trama: Regular, hyaline to pale orange brown (KOH), pigment irregularly encrusting the membranes (0.5-1.5 µm diam.).
    • Epicutis: Consisting of hyaline to yellowish-brownish subgelatinous parallel thin hyphae.
    • Hypodermium: Of elongate hyphae (5-15 µm diam.) with hyaline to brownish membranes (- 2 µm diam.). Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious on rotten wood, sticks and plant debris in tropical forest at about 1000 m a. s. l. Known from type locality only.

    Studied material: NEW CALEDONIA, Mt. Mou, N of Paita; 22. II. 1977, leg. HORAK (Holotype ZT, 77/161; isotype ENCG).

    Discussion: The pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia of this species are similar to the ones observed in Psilocybe nematolomiformis Guzmán (1977), described from tropical rain forest in Mexico, differ, however, in size and shape. Furthermore, the pileus of the Mexican species is glabrous. Psilocybe neocaledonica is also close to Agaricus (Naucoria) lonchophorus B. & Br. from Ceylon. Upon examining the type material of this species (K) by one of the authors (HORAK), only hyaline pleurocystidia have been found and chrysocystidia-like cystidia are absent. The non-cellular structure of the subcutis or hypodermium in combination with the rhombic spores are distinctly separating this New Caledonian species from taxa of the genus Naematoloma Karsten. It is possible that this new species is an hallucinogenic fungus since it has close taxonomic relationships with hallucinogenic species of the Stirps Yungensis.

    source - www.sydowia.at [31: 53-54]

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    Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata

    Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata Guzmán et Gaines



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-45 mm in diameter, brown with a sticky surface when moist drying to a pale bluish grey to white.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-90 mm, white to buff with a distinct but fragile membranous annulus, base tenaciously attached to substrate with thick white rhizomorphs.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Subadnate, brownish.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 8-10 by 6-7 µm, subrhomboid to rhomboid.

    Habitat: Climate temperate. Hardwood logs and debris.

    Comment: Previously misidentified as Psilocybe caerulipes. Closer examination reveals that the Bethany collection is most likely Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata, which agrees with the identification proposed by Psilocybe expert, Gastón Guzmán. Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata is only known from Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
    This was the only species we provided that had not been directly assessed by our staff. It is our policy not to accept spore products from outside sources in order to maintain tight quality control and correct identification. Due to the rarity and exceptional documentation of the samples we made an exception. Unfortunately, without actual specimens to examine, staff misidentified the species. At the time we were unaware of the existence of the newly described Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata and made our identification based primarily on the location of the initial collection. We could not have guessed that another species would be found in an area previously only known for a single, native and active Psilocybe that shares the same habitat.
    See also its close relative Psilocybe subaeruginascens.

    source - www.sporeworks.com

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    Psilocybe papuana

    Psilocybe papuana Guzmán & Horak



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-20 mm diam., conical to conico-convex, densely striate for about 2/3 when moist, membranaceous, glabrous, dry, hygrophanous, black-green to deep olive green, fading in aged carpophores.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed or adnato-adnexed, densely crowded, brownish grey or pale brown when young, turning cocoa brown or brown in mature specimens, often with purplish tinge, staining greenish when bruised, edge albofimbriate or concolorous.
    • Stem/Stipe: 35-55 by 1-1.5 mm, cylindrical, equal or subbulbous at base, hollow, dark brown below, pale brown towards apex, covered with white fibrils from the veil, dry, base often with white mycelium or white short rhizoids. Stipe turns green in aged carpophores or when bruised.
    • Context: Pale green or black green in pileus, brown in stipe especially towards base.
    • Odor: And taste absent or acidulous. Chemical reactions on pileus: KOH and HCl - negative

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 5,5-7 (-8) by 4.5-6 by 3.8-4.5 µm, subrhombic (dorsoventral) to elliptical (lateral), yellowish brown (KOH), smooth thick-walled membrane, broad flattened germ pore present.
    • Basidia: 13-22 by 4.5-6.5 µm, 4-spored, hyaline.
    • Cheilocystidia: (6.5) 10-18 by 6.5-13 µm, globose to broadly fusoid, often with irregular short neck (2,5-4,5 by -2,5 µm), hyaline, thin-walled membrane, forming sterile gill edge.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Subhymenium: And trama subhyaline, membranes of hyphae irregularly encrusted with yellowish or black (KOH) pigment which reacts pale black-blue (amyloid) in Melzer solution.
    • Epicutis: A cutis composed of partly gelatinized parallel hyphae, membranes encrusted with yellowish (KOH) pigment.
    • Hypodermium: Of cylindrical to globose cells, membranes hyaline or brownish (KOH), like those of trama. Clamp connections on septae.

    Habitat: Gregarious in small groups, occasionally also solitary, on soil or among litter in tropical or subtropical-montane forests under Castanopsis, Lithocarpus or Nothofagus, 1000-2400 m a. s. l. Known from Papua New Guinea only.

    Studied material: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, Eastern Highlands: Mt. Michael, Frigano, Hut Track; 6. XII. 1971, leg. HORAK (Holotype ZT, 71/385; isotype in ENCB). - Kassem Pass; 13. XII. 1972, leg. HOKAK (ZT, 72/726).

    Discussion: This species reminds of the hallucinogenic Psilocybe caerulescens MURR., reported from the SE of the United States and Mexico (SINGER & SMITH, 1958). The shape and size of the cheilocystidia, however, are distinctly separating the two species.

    source - www.sydowia.at [31: 49-50]

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    Psilocybe pelliculosa

    Psilocybe pelliculosa (A.H.Sm.) Singer & A.H.Sm. (1958)


    synonyms:
    Psathyra pelliculosa A.H.Sm. (1937)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.5-2 (3) cm broad. Obtusely conic, becoming conic-campanulate with age. Margin translucent-striate and generally not incurved in young specimens. Chestnut brown when moist, then dark dingy yellow to pale yellow in drying (hygrophanous), often with a pallid band along the margin, and frequently tinged olive green in patches. Surface smooth, viscid when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle. Flesh thin, pliant, and more or less concolorous with the cap.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, finally seceding, close, narrow to moderately broad. Color dull cinnamon brown, darkening with spores in age.
    • Stem/Stipe: 60-80 mm long by 1-2.5 mm thick. Equal above, and slightly enlarged at the base. Surface is covered with appressed grayish fibrils, and powdered at the apex. Whitish to pallid to grayish more brownish toward the base, blue green where bruised or with age. Flesh stuffed with a tough pith. Partial veil thin to obscure or absent.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spores purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid to subovoid, 9-13 by 5-7 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 17-36 by 4-7.5 µm, fusiform to lace-shaped, with an elongated neck 1.5-2 µm thick.

    Habitat: Scattered to gregarious to cespitose on well-decayed conifer substratum, in mulch, or in soil rich in lignin. Often seen along paths in conifer forests and along abandoned logging roads that are actively being recaptured by alders and firs. Found in mid-to-late fall to early winter throughout the Pacific Northwest and Northern California.

    Comment: Active, although comparatively weak, containing up to 0.41% psilocybin, no psilocin, and 0.04% baeocystin, as reported by Beug and Bigwood (1982b) and Repke et al. (1977). Psilocybe pelliculosa is nearly identical with Psilocybe silvatica, and is distinguished from it by the length of the spores. The conic-shaped cap, the gregarious nature of their fruitings, the fibrillose patches on the stem, and the bluing reaction at the base of the stem are some of the most distinctive features of this species. See also Psilocybe silvatica and Psilocybe washingtonensis. This mushroom has a general resemblance, especially at a distance, to Hypholoma dispersum (=Naematoloma dispersum). When my kids were toddlers, I would take them mushroom hunting in the Olympic Peninsula. On one November trip, after parking the car, we strolled up an abandoned logging road. Coming down the road were two pot (edible mushroom) hunters. When I asked if there were any good mushrooms up there, they replied, "There's nothing of interest." Less than fifty yards later, we found several thousand Psilocybe pelliculosa. The patch looked like a well-organized army of mushrooms, standing tall and proud. The pot hunters had walked right through the multitudes, unaware of the potential for a life-changing experience.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe physaloides

    Psilocybe physaloides (Bull.) Quél.


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe montana (Pers.) Kumm. 1871
    Psilocybe physaloides (Bull. ex. Merat) Quelet
    Psilocybe caespitosa Murrill
    Psilocybe atrorufa sensu auct.


    probably nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.5-2.5 cm. Convex to slightly subumbonate at first, soon expanding to broadly convex to nearly plane, often with an undulating margin and subumbonate. Surface smooth, viscid when moist and translucent-striate along the margin, which can be decorated with fibrillose remnants of the partial veil. Chestnut brown to reddish brown, lighter along the margin, hygrophanous, fading in drying to straw yellow or dingy yellow.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, or sinuate. Dingy vinaceous brown, becoming dark purplish brown with spore maturity.
    • Stem/Stipe: 15-50 mm long by 1-1.5 mm thick, typically enlarging towards the apex, then narrowing, and enlarging at the base. Rigid, hollow, and covered with patches of fine grayish fibrils, darkening upwards. Partial veil cortinate, deteriorating with age and leaving remnants.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Violet blackish brown in deposit, subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, 6-8 by 4-5.5 µm. Pale yellowish brown to tan with spore maturity.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 16-28 (33) by 4-7 µm, fusoid to sublageniform with short necks 3.3-4.4 µm thick.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious, sometimes subcespitose in disturbed soils, soils rich with woody debris, often at field-forest (conifer) interfaces. Common in Europe, also reported from Canada, Greenland, and the northern United States, including Alaska. This mushroom has been collected as far south as Santa Barbara. Often fruits in the summer through early fall.

    Comment: Not known to be active; not yet analyzed. The silvery sheath of fibrils from a darkening base is a feature that stands out for this mushroom, and is reminiscent of Psilocybe crobula, Psilocybe inquilina and to a lesser degree Psilocybe montana.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe pintonii

    Psilocybe pintonii Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 15-40 mm diam., subconvex co subumbonate or subpapillate, sometimes irregularly lobulate, eventually appianate or subconcave, smooth, but when young covered by white fibrils from the veil; sometimes slightly rimose, lubricous to dry, slightly transparently striate when moist, hygrophanous, brownish to orange brown or chocolate brown, fading to a dirty yellow.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Sinuate or adnate, brownish to gray violet, thick with whitish to concolorous edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-60 x 3-5 mm, cylindrical, hollow, whitish to subconcolorous with the pileus, covered toward the base by floccose white veil fibrils; base remaining somewhat blackish in dried specimens. Both pileus and stipe stain green-blue when injured. Veil well developed when young but absent in the adult stage.
    • Context: Whitish to brownish, fleshy in the pileus, fibrous-hard in stipe; staining blue when cut, with farinaceous odor and taste.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (6-) 6.6-7.7 (-8.8) x (3.3-) 4-4.5 µm, ellipsoid or subelliptic, somewhat subrhomboid in face view, thin walled, smooth, brownish yellow.
    • Basidia: 16-22 x 4.4-8 µm, four-spored, cylindric-pyriform, sometimes sinuos-pyriform.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 17-20 x 4-7 µm, hyaline, ventricose-fusoid, lageniform, irregularly ventricose with constrictions or branched or with capitate to subcapitate apex, mixed with basidia in different stages of deformation.
    • Subhymenium: Brownish without incrusting pigment, but with thick irregular walls in the hyphae; these 6-25 µm.
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized, formed by hyaline elongated and parallel hyphae 3-5 µm broad.
    • Hypodermium: With hyphae with reddish brownish 4-8 µm broad.

    Habitat: Solitary or gregarious on soil without herbaceous vegetation, in páramos with Espeletia, at 3450-3600 m elevation.

    Studied material: COLOMBIA, Cundinamarca Dept, Páramo de Palacio, Hacienda La Siberia, road La Calera to La Mina, near the branch to Rincón del Oso, Aug. 20, 1964, Guzmán 9160 (ENCB); July 23, 1971, Guzmán 9762 (Holotype COL; Isotype ENCB).

    Discussion: This species is close to Psilocybe zapotecorum Heim and Psilocybe muliercula Sing. & Smith, and certainly belongs to the same group, but the special cheilocystidia separate it well from the other species. Because of the bluing reaction and the farinaceous odor and taste, this is probably a hallucinogenic species, but there is no information about its use. The same situation holds true for Psilocybe columbiana.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 247-248]

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    Psilocybe plutonia

    Psilocybe plutonia Berk. & M.A. Curtis Sacc.


    synonyms:
    Agaricus plutonia

    Description: The word plutonia comes from the Latin words plutonian or plutonic. Perhaps in connection with the dark color of the mushroom.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter, conic to convex, with an acute umbo or papilla, not viscid, glabrous, slightly translucent-striate, silky white fibrils when young that fade in age, hygrophanous, lubricous, reddish brown to yellowish brown or clay color, becoming blackish. Flesh thin, brownish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed, sometimes with a decurrent tooth, thin, light brown to dark brown, blackish in age, edges pallid.
    • Stem/Stipe: (1.8) 2.5-4 (5) cm long, 0.5-1.5 mm equal to slightly enlarged at the base, flexuous, hollow, dark brown or reddish brown, apex pruinose, zoned with appressed whitish fibrils. No annulus is formed by the cortinate veil.
    • Odor: None to slightly farinaceous. Taste unknown.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Purple brown in deposit, rhomboid or subrhomboid in face view, (3.7) 4.5-6 (6.7) x 4.5-5.2 µm, thick-walled, with a broad truncate germ pore.
    • Basidia: 11-17 µm.
    • Pleurocistidia: 17-26 µm.
    • Cheilocystidia: 12-17 x 5-6 µm.

    Habitat: Psilocybe plutonia may be found growing solitary or gregarious, from late June through February, on rotted wood or in soil with woody material, in tropical forests, from Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Cuba, often near sea level or in lower elevations, although widely distributed, it is not found often.

    source - www.wikipedia.org

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    Psilocybe portoricensis

    Psilocybe portoricensis Guzmán, Nieves-Rivera & Tapia



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 5-15 (-20) mm diam, campanulate to subpapillate, glabrous, smooth but striate towards the margin. subviscid, hygrophanous. dark buff to coffee brown, bluing.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed, dark violaceous brown, with concolorous edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50 (-60) x 0.5-1 mm, uniform, smooth. brownish to dark brownish red, hollow, bluing. Veil ephemera.
    • Context: Brownish, bluing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 5-5.5 x 4-5 x 3-4 µm, subrhomboid or subglobose in face-view, subellipsoid and slightly inaequilateral in side-view. thick-walled, wall up to 1 µm thick, pale yellowish brown, with a distinct plane and apical pore, and with a short basal appendage.
    • Basidia: 20-32 x 5-7 µm, 4-spored, subcylindric to clavate, hyaline.
    • Pleurocistidia: 13.5 x 5-7 µm, more or less abundant, hyaline, sublageniform with a long tapering apex.
    • Cheilocystidia: 16-24 x 5-7 µm, hyaline, sublageniform, with two or three regular or irregular long necks.
    • Subhymenium: Subcellular, poorly differentiated, with hyaline, subcylindrical or subglobose, thin-walled elements 2.5-5.5 µm diam.
    • Trama: Hymenophoral trama regular, with hyaline to yellowish hyphae 4-9 µm, with inflated hyphae up to 28 µm diam, thin- to thick-walled (wall up to 2 µm thick), irregularly incrusted with yellowish pigment.
    • Epicutis: An irregular, thin. gelatinized layer of pale yellowish hyphae, 1.5-3 µm diam.
    • Hypodermium: With cylindric to subglobose elements 2.5-9.5 µm, diam. hyaline to yellowish, thin-walled and with incrusted yellowish pigment. Context with cylindric to subglobose elements, 4-10 µm, diam, hyaline to yellowish, thin- to thick-walled, with irregular yellowish incrustations. Clamp-connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious or solitary on muddy clay brownish soil or humus in a coffee plantation, along a trail, in a mesophytic forest. Known only from Puerto Rico.

    Studied material: PUERTO RICO, Municipio Villalba, Toro Negro State Forest, trail to Torre 3 (18°10'N, 66°30'W), 820-1015 m alt., Oct. 1994, Nieves-Rivera, Santos-Flores & Betancourt s.n. (holotype MAPR; isotype XAL).

    Discussion: This species belongs to Sect. Cordisporae Guzmán by virtue of their smaller rhomboid spores, bluing feature and subtropical habitat. It is close to Psilocybe subtropicalis Guzmán, from Mexico and Guatemala, by the branched cheilocystidia, but that species has spores (5.5-) 6.5-7 (-8) µm long and collybioid habit (Guzmán, 1995). Psilocybe plutonia differs with pleurocystidia broadly ventricose, ventricose-mucronate or obpyriform, 17-26 (-30) x 9-12 µm (Guzmán, 1983, 1995).

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [63: 379-380]

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    Psilocybe pseudocyanea

    Psilocybe pseudocyanea (Desm.) Noordel


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe pseudocyanea (Desmazieres: Fries) Noordeloos
    Stropharia pseudocyanea (Desmazieres) Morgan
    Stropharia albocyanea (Desmazieres) Quelet


    probably nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-3 cm, conic-convex, expanding to acutely to bluntly umbonate, whitish with azure to bluish green tinges, fading to straw or cream colored. Surface viscid from a separable gelatinous pellicle. Margin adorned with remnants of the partial veil. Flesh bluish green, fading to azure, then pale bluish green and eventually straw colored.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, pale fawn to purplish, with toothlike edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 35-70 mm long by 2-5 mm thick, equal, slim, flexuous, bluish green to azure blue to straw colored, soft, easily breaking, pruinose-flocculose particularly towards the apex. Partial veil membranous, leaving a membranous annulus, degrading into an annular zone.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Purplish brown in deposit, ellipsoid, 7-9 by 4-5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Cheilocystidia: Capitate-clavate to lageniform capitate, 24-44 by 4-8 µm by 4-5 at apex when narrowing, or 6-12 µm when swollen.

    Habitat: Prefers tall grass in wetlands, marshes, and meadows, or tall shrubs along trails at field-forest interfaces. Known from the British Isles, much of northern Europe, and the Pacific Northwest. Probably more widely distributed.

    Comment: Activity unknown. Due caution is advised. Psilocybe pseudocyanea is closely related to Psilocybe aeruginosa and Psilocybe caerulea. All of these species were formerly placed in the genus Stropharia but recently transferred to Psilocybe by Noordeloos (1995). The smaller spores, soft stem, and wetland habitats are classic features. The edibility of this species is not well documented. The bluish color and its close taxonomic relationship to active species makes Psilocybe pseudocyanea a likely candidate for activity. However, caution is always recommended with these less-studied species that lack an experiential history.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe quebecensis

    Psilocybe quebecensis Ola'h & R. Heim 1967



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-3.5 cm broad. Nearly hemispheric at first, soon expanding to convex, then becoming broadly convex to plane, and without an umbo. Margin incurved at first and usually not markedly undulated; translucent-striate when moist. Pale straw yellow and often with brownish or tawny hues, becoming more grayish in drying. Bruising bluish when touched or disturbed. Surface smooth, becoming finely wrinkled with age, and viscid when moist. Flesh whitish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, thin, moderately broad to swollen in the middle. Becoming very dark chestnut brown at maturity, and usually somewhat mottled, with the edges remaining whitish.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-35 (45) mm long by 1-2.5 mm thick. Brittle, tough, and fibrous. Slightly enlarged at the apex and flared at the base, which is often furnished with rhizomorphs. Yellowish tawny, drying to a distinct grayish yellow, becoming bluish where bruised. Partial veil cortinate, fugacious, and soon disappearing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spores purplish brown to black in deposit, ellipsoid to subovoid in side and face view, some spores mango shaped, 8-14 (16) by 6-8.8 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Present, 12-35 by 9-15 µm, very distinctive by their swollen apices, as in Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe cyanescens.
    • Cheilocystidia: 18-36 by 5.5-10 µm, fusoid-ampullaceous with an extended neck, 2-3.3 µm thick.

    Habitat: Grows in sandy soils, particularly in outwashes of streams, and in the decayed-wood substratum of alder, birch, fir, and spruce in the late summer and fall. Reported from Quebec, specifically in the Jacques Cartier river valley.

    Comment: Moderately active according to Ola'h and Heim (1967). Psilocybe quebecensis is a classic flood-plain species and is probably more widely distributed than presently reported. This species is not well known to Quebec residents, and I suspect that naturalized colonies could easily be established by those wishing to have Psilocybe quebecensis growing in their backyard. See also Psilocybe caerulipes and Psilocybe baeocystis.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe samuiensis

    Psilocybe samuiensis Guzmán, Bandala & Allen



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 7 to 1.5 cm. Convex to conic-convex to campanulate, often umbonate with a small papilla. Translucent when moist, striate margin in young, and with a separate pellicle. Hygrophanous and fading to straw-yellow in drying.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate and clay colored, than violaceous brown to chocolate-violet with whitish margins.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40 to 60 mm. long by 1-2 mm thick. Whitish to yellowish and covered with fibrils. Enlarged at base. Partial veil cortinate leaving a superior fibrillous annular zone that soon disappears.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 9.3-13 x 5-7 µm. Sporeprint - chocolate to purple-brown.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Scattered and ventricose towards the base.

    Habitat: Grows in well manured clay-like soils in rice paddies and open grassy areas.

    Distribution: Koh Samui Island in the Gulf of Thailand and surrounding areas. Ranong Province, Thailand and at Angkor Wat, Cambodia.

    Season: Late may through September and possibly into October.

    Dosage: 15-20 fresh mushrooms

    Comment: So far this mushroom has only been found four times, fruiting in rice paddies from two locations on Koh Samui Island in the Gulf of Thailand. First in 1991 by John W. Allen in rice paddie fields near the Muslim village of Ban Hua Thanon, Koh Samui. Ten years later, a 2nd collection was gathered with Chief Ill Eagle, Travis Canaday, Nataya and Mike Acevedo, about 100 meters past where the first collection was found ten years earlier.
    In 2003, JWA found 8 specimens in a second location a few miles down the road in the rice paddie fields of Na Muang, Koh Samui. And again in 2004, numerous collections were gathered from that same field during two separate fruitings in June and July of 2004. Its fruiting run is from 5 to 7 days and then they are gone from the fields.
    Most likely it is probable that this species also fruits in other locations in southern Thailand and possibly Malaysia. It is not, as reported by http://www.petfungus.com found in Eastern Oregon. This species is closely related to Psilocybe mexicana Heim Heim and is macroscopically similar to Psilocybe semilanceata and is the first species found outside of Mexico directly related to Psilocybe mexicana Heim, That latter species is ceremoniously used by native Americans in Mesoamerica.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe sanctorum

    Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe zapotecorum Heim emend Guzmán
    Psilocybe aggericola Singer & A.H. Sm.
    Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán
    Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán
    Psilocybe chaconii Guzmán, M. Torres & Ram.-Guill.
    Psilocybe bolivarii Guzmán, Ciencia (Méx.)
    Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosum
    Psilocybe candidipes Singer & A.H. Sm.
    Psilocybe aggericola var. alvaradoi
    Psilocybe zapotecorum f. elongata
    Psilocybe pseudozapotecorum Guzmán
    Psilocybe microcystidiata Guzmán & Bononi

    Psilocybe sanctorum was known only from the type locality in Mexico, in the State of Mexico, in grassland on the border of a Pinus-Quercus-Populus forest (Guzmán, 1982). It is now recorded for first time from the State of Veracruz [Chacón 2529 (XAL), 5 km W from Coatepec, Aug. 22, 1984, in a subtropical (mesophytic) forest]. This material differs from the type by the pileus which is not so papillate. This demonstrates the variation of the basidiomata in this species, a feature typical of several other species of Sect. Zapotecorum.

    source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 117]

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    Psilocybe semiglobata

    Psilocybe semiglobata (Batsch) Noordel. (1995)


    synonyms:
    Protostropharia semiglobata (Batsch) Redhead, Moncalvo & Vilgays (2013)
    Agaricus semiglobatus Batsch (1786)
    Agaricus nitens Bull. (1792)
    Coprinus semiglobatus (Batsch) Gray (1821)
    Stropharia semiglobata (Batsch) Quél. (1872)
    Geophila semiglobata (Batsch) Quél. (1886)
    Psalliota semiglobata (Batsch) P.Kumm. (1871)
    Fungus semiglobatus (Batsch) Kuntze (1898)


    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-4 cm broad. Obtuse to hemispheric to convex and finally broadly convex in age. Occasionally with an umbo. Light yellow to deep straw yellow when fresh, not hygrophanous. Surface smooth, viscid to extremely viscid to glutinous from a separable gelatinous pellicle. Flesh form, watery buff, not bruising.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, broad, close to subdistant, with one to two tiers of intermediate gills. Grayish when young, becoming purplish brown with spore maturity, edges remaining pale to whitish.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-120 mm long by 2-5 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarged downwards. Surface below annular zone, whitish to nearly concolorous with cap, viscid to extremely viscid to glutinous in the lower two thirds of the stem. Partial veil glutinous, leaving an annular zone of fibrils, soon darkened. Flesh stuffed with a yellowish pith at first, and becoming hollow with age. No bruising reaction.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, ellipsoid, 15-19 by 8-10 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Cheilocystidia: Present, narrowly fusoid-ventricose with a long, flexuous neck, 26-38 by 6-9 µm.
    • Pleurocistidia: Difficult to find, 32-46 by 9-14 µm.

    Habitat: Single to gregarious on cow or horse dung in the spring, summer, and fall. Widely distributed throughout North America and much of the temperate regions of the world.

    Comment: Not active. Psilocybe semiglobata, formerly known as Stropharia semiglobata, is included here because this mushroom is prolific in habitats also frequented by the active Psilocybes and Panaeoli. I have often found Psilocybe merdaria, Psilocybe coprophila and Panaeolus papilionaceus sharing the same habitat with Psilocybe semiglobata. The natural affinities between these Psilocybes is obvious to all who have collected them. The uniquely glutinous veil disthinguishes this species from close relatives.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe semiinconspicua

    Psilocybe semiinconspicua Guzmán & J. M. Trappe



    Description: Psilocybe semiinconspicua is a psilocybin mushroom in section Semilanceatae native to the state of Washington in the United States. The mushroom is small, rare, difficult to see and stains blue where damaged. It can be mistaken for Psilocybe silvatica and can be distinguished by its more conic cap, narrower spores and narrower cheilocystidia.
    This mushroom is only known from the type locality where it was found at the Glacier Peak Wilderness Area in Wentachee National Forest, Washington, USA.

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 7-12 mm and convex, becoming nearly plane in age. It is hygrophanous, has a smooth surface, and is olive black when moist, fading to brownish orange or dark reddish brown as it dries.
    • Gills/Lamellae: The gills are Adnate light grayish brown at first, turning dark purple as the spores mature.
    • Stem/Stipe: 15-20 x 2 mm, hollow, has an equal width, and is white with whitish or brownish floccose scales, drying to a reddish brown. It stains blue near the base.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 8-10 x 5,7 µm, subovoid to ellipsoid, thick-walled, and yellowish brown to dark purple brown in deposit.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Cheilocystidia: Sublageniform and 24-30 x 6-8 µm. No pleurocystidia have been observed. Clamp connections are present.

    Habitat: Gregarious in small groups among shrubs on a creek bank.

    source - www.wikipedia.org

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    Psilocybe semilanceata

    Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) P.Kumm. (1871)


    synonyms:
    Agaricus semilanceatus Fr. (1838)
    Geophila semilanceata (Fr.) Quél. (1886)
    Panaeolus semilanceatus (Fr.) J.E.Lange (1936)
    Panaeolus semilanceatus (Fr.) J.E.Lange (1939)

    Not common. Sporocarps grow from summer to autumn with peak in late autumn, singly or groups of several, terrestrial or on grass remnants, in nutrient-poor pastures, meadows or other grassy terrains, never on fresh manure, if accidentally on cattle manure, then on very old one.
    Pileus hygrophanous, olive-pale brown when moist, also with dark olive or livid-green spots, particularly at the edge, pale straw-coloured when dry, ochraceous; 5-15(20) mm in diameter, 6-15(20) mm high, initially obtusely conical and usually with a distinct papilla, acutely umbonate, with age conical to campanulate, but never plane; surface smooth, when moist lubricous, slightly viscid; margin initially incurved, later plane or decurved, slightly translucent-striate when moist, in very young specimens visible whitish fibrils of the veil connecting the pileal margin with the stipe.

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    Psilocybe semilanceata „Gigant“




    There are 2 valleys high in the hills of Spain where Ignacio finds the p. semilanceata's (a.k.a. liberty caps). One of those valleys produces some very large and potent semi's that grow on horse dung and straw. The other valley produces your typical small sized potent semi.
    To date, there are no known cases of the semilanceata successfully being cultivated indoors. These pics are kind of inspiring because there growing on straw. Perhaps time to rethink that strategy. We now have spore prints of the giant straw loving Psilocybe semilanceata from Spain as well.
    On the left Psilocybe semilanceata from Spain growing on grass and dung, on the right Psilocybe semilanceata from Spain growing on straw and dung.

    source - www.thehawkseye.com

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    Psilocybe silvatica

    Psilocybe silvatica Peck Singer and Smith


    synonyms:
    Psathyra silvatica
    Hypholoma silvaticum

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.8-2.5 cm broad. Obtusely conic to campanulate with an acute umbo. Tawny dark brown when moist, fading to a pale yellow-brown. Smooth, viscid when moist with a thin gelatinous pellicle.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to adnexed. Close to subdistant and narrow to moderately broad. Dull grayish brown to cinnamon or smoky brown with age. Edges white.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-80 mm long x 1-3 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarge at the base. Brittle.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 6-9.5 x 4-5.5 µm. Sporeprint - dark purplish brown.

    Habitat: Gregarious but not cespitose on wood debris, wood chips (preferably alder), or even decayed conifer substratum.

    Distribution: From west of the Cascades in southern Oregon to British Columbia, Canada. Also reported from Idaho and as far away as Finland.

    Season: From late September through December.

    Comment: Very similar to Psilocybe pelliculosa and is usually found growing along with them. Stamets (1996) reports that in some colonies of Psilocybe silvatica the caps were more yellow in appearance than those of the caps of Psilocybe pelliculosa.

    Dosage: Moderately weaker than Psilocybe semilanceata From 20 to 40 fresh mushrooms, 1/3 of a fresh ounce or from 2 to 4 grams dried.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe serbica

    Psilocybe serbica M.M.Moser & E.Horak (1969)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe bohemica ©ebek (1983)
    Psilocybe arcana Borov. & Hlavácek (2001)
    Psilocybe moravica Borov. (2003)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-3.5 cm broad. Convex to campanulate, often twisted, expanding with age to broadly convex to plane. Surface viscid when moist from a thin gelatinous pellicle, often not separable. Margin translucent-striate when moist, becoming opaque in drying, soon uplifting and irregular in age, bluish tinged or bruising bluish where injured. Reddish brown to brownish yellow, hygrophanous, fading to grayish yellow, ochraceous or straw colored in drying.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, purplish brown to chocolate brown with whitish margins.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-60 mm long by 1.5-5 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarged towards the base, whitish to whitish with splotchy brown patches, bruising bluish where injured, and covered with white fibrillose patches below. Partial veil finely cortinate, soon disappearing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, elongate-ellipsoid in face and side view, 10-13 by 5.5-7 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent or rare, and usually near the gill edge, mucronate, 16-25 by 4.4-7.7 µm.
    • Cheilocystidia: 20-36 by 6-11 µm, lageniform with extended necks 1.5-2.5 µm, arising from cells parallel to gill edge.

    Habitat: Reported only from Yugoslavia (Serbia), Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. Growing on rotting wood or in soils rich in woody debris, in deciduous or mixed forests, beneath European beech (Fagus silvatica) and/or mixed with firs (Abies sp.)

    Comment: Moderately active to highly active. Psilocybe serbica is taxonomically close to Psilocybe atrobrunnea except the latter species prefers mossy areas and does not bruise bluish. See also Psilocybe liniformans and Psilocybe cyanescens.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe squamosa

    Psilocybe squamosa (Pers.: Fr.) P. D. Orton


    synonyms:
    Leratiomyces squamosus Bridge & Spooner 2008
    Agaricus squamosus
    Geophila squamosa
    Hypholoma squamosum
    Naematoloma squamosum
    Psalliota squamosa
    Stropharia squamosa
    Stropholoma squamosum


    probably nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 3-8 cm broad. Conic or obtusely conic when young, with an incurved margin soon becoming broadly campanulate to convex, and often with a conic umbo. Viscid when moist from a separable gelationous pellicle, but soon drying. Yellowish brown to orangish brown overall. At first adorned with small squamules (scales) along the margin, but soon smooth and free of veil remnants. Flesh relatively thin and watery brown when wet.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to uncinate, close to subdistant, moderately broad, with two to three tiers of intermediate gills inserted. Pallid bluish gray, then dark grayish brown to purple brown when fully mature.
    • Stem/Stipe: 60-120 mm long by 4-8 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarged and curved at the base, hollow, and somewhat fragile. Whitish towards the apes and sordid brown to dense buff below the annulus. Surface covered with evanescent pallid to brownish recurved scales, often with orange-buff rhizomorphs protruding about the base. Partial veil membranous, fragile, leaving a superior membranous annulus, striated on the top side, often hanging broken around the stem or entirely absent in age.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark grayish violet brown in deposit, subellipsoid, 11-15 by 7-8 µm with a central germ pore.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Cheilocystidia: 36-66 by 3.3-6 µm, filamentous to sublageniform, with an apex adorned with a glutinous mass.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.

    Habitat: Solitary to scattered in the late summer and fall in meadows and mixed conifer and alder woods. Known from the Pacific Northwest, Minnesota, and California. It is likely this species is widely distributed across the continent.

    Comment: There are conflicting reports on the edibility of Psilocybe squamosa; caution is definitely recommended. Once a Stropharia, this species lacks the chrysocystidia once typical of that genus. Both the squamules of the cap and the annulus are temporal features, and can soon disappear after heavy rains. See also Psilocybe thrausta, which is very similar but differs in the reddish coloration of the caps.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe strictipes

    Psilocybe strictipes Singer & A.H.Smith


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe strictipes Singer and Smith
    Psilocybe callosa (Fries ex Fries) Quelet sensu auct., sensu Guzmán (1983)
    Psilocybe semilanceata var. obtusa Bon
    Psilocybe semilanceata var. microspora Singer

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0,5-3 cm broad, conic at first, expanding to convex, campanulate, and eventually broadly convex, and typically not sharply umbonate but may have a low umbo. Surface smooth, translucent-striate near the margin, which may have slight remnants of the veil and viscid when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle. Dark grayish brown to cinnamon brown, fading to straw or light yellow in drying. Flesh sometimes bruising bluish when injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, sometimes subdecurrent, and tearing free from the stem in drying. Chocolate brown with whitish edges when mature.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-70 (130) mm long by 2-3 mm thick. White to yellow to yellowish brown. Equal, straight to flexuous, typically tough, cartilaginous, and decorated with fibrillose patches, veil remnants, and basal mycelium that can bruise bluish. (Base is not adorned with cordlike rhizomorphs.) Partial veil thinly cortinate, fragile, and rarely leaving an annular zone on the upper regions of the stem.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Spores dark purple brown in deposit, subellipsoid to suboblong 10-12 by 5.5-8 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 21-45 by 7-10 µm, lageniform with an extended neck 2-3.5 µm thick.

    Habitat: Fruits in the late summer to fall in the Pacific Northwest, England, northern and central Europe (Czech Republic, France, Germany, Holland, Slovakia, Sweden), Siberia and Chile. Typically found in rich, grassy areas such as lawns, along roadsides, and in fields - but not on dung, although common in fields with and without manure.

    Comment: Chemical analysis not available. Estimated to be moderately active to potent, judging from personal bioassays, and probably low in psilocin, because of the limited bluing reaction. Psilocybe strictipes is a slender, grassland species, thought to be an intermediate form, bridging Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe pelliculosa, two taxa that are very similar in general appearance except for habitat preferences and/or microscopic details. Psilocybe strictipes has had a very confused history. Guzmán (1995), following Redhead (1985) and Watling and Gregory (1987), attempted to clear up the long-standing confusion surrounding this species and its well-known synonym, Psilocybe callosa. (The original Agaricus callosus Fr. is not related to the mushroom described here and is actually synonymous with Panaeolus papilionaceus Bull. ex: Fr. Quelet.).
    The modern concept of Psilocybe callosa became subordinate to a new taxon, which Singer and Smith (1958a) originally proposed as Psilocybe strictipes. Guzmán (1983) had made Psilocybe strictipes subordinate to Psilocybe callosa in his monograph. Upon reevaluation, Guzmán (1995) reaffirmed Psilocybe strictipes as the proper name. Mixed collections resulted in this species being further confused with Psilocybe baeocystis, to which it bears little resemblance. Furthermore, the preferred habitat for Psilocybe strictipes is grasslands or rich soils, not the woodlands that Singer and Smith (1958a) had described. Their line drawings of Psilocybe strictipes show two distinct forms: one mycenoid resembling the closely related Psilocybe semilanceata, and an isolated drawing, more collyboid in shape, showing a mushroom atypical to the first form. Guzmán (1983) writes that the specimen used by Smith to make the line drawing was actually Psilocybe baeocystis. Additionally, in their original description they indicate that the collection number assigned to the original type was erroneous, which perhaps related to the original confusion and the two decades of confusion that followed. Virtually all the field guides published since 1958, including mine (1978), erroneously describe Psilocybe strictipes.
    For most field hunters, the grassland habitat narrows the field of candidate possibilities. The absence of sharp umbo and its thinly fleshed cap are two macroscopic features that delineate this species from its closest ally, Psilocybe semilanceata, with which it is often confused. Guzmán (1983, 17) noted that, "the form of the pileus is of taxonomic value in Psilocybe. Psilocybe semilanceata is distinguished from Psilocybe callosa (=Psilocybe strictipes) on the papilla in the first and in the convex to the more or less subumbonate pileus in the latter."
    With many grassland species, the length of the stem is usually a direct response to the height of the grass through which its arises. The stem base is typically tightly attached to dead, thatched grass. Microscopically, Psilocybe strictipes has smaller and narrower spores than Psilocybe semilanceata. The name strictipes refers to the tough or hardened texture of the stem, especially the base, in drying.
    A variety Psilocybe strictipes abundantly in western Oregon in close association with highland bentgrass (Agrostis tenuis) where thousands of acres are dedicated to the commercial cultivation of grass seed - a major industry in that region. The prolific fruitings of Psilocybe strictipes in these grasslands and the subsequent distribution of spore-dusted seeds represents a huge launching platform of germ plasm to faraway lawns, golf courses, and institutions of higher learning. The potential distribution of this species through the commercial distribution of lawn seed is mind-boggling. Psilocybe strictipes is likely to be much more common than presently realized.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe stuntzii

    Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & J. Ott


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe pugetensis

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.5-5 cm broad. Obtusely conic, expanding to convex-umbonate or flat with age. Margin is striate and translucent when moist. Hygrophanous. Dark chestnut brown while lighter towards the center. Olive-greenish at times, fading to a pale yellowish brown or pale yellow. Viscid when moist from a gelatinous pellicle.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to adnexed, close to sub distant and moderately broad.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30 to 60 mm long x 2-4 mm thick. Enlarged at base. Remnants of a veil remain and are usually bluish from natural injury when the cap opens. With a whitish pith. Staining blue to blue-green where injured.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 9-12 x 55-8.3 x 5-7.7 µ. Sporeprint dark purplish grayish brown.

    Habitat: Growing gregarious to subcespitose clusters and clumps in conifer wood chips and bark mulch (alder wood), in soils rich in woody debris, and in new lawns of freshly laid sod.

    Distribution: From North of San Francisco to Eugene, Oregon to British Columbia. This species is common in lawns and grassy areas such as parks, fields, or any newly mulched garden area throughout the western region of the Pacific Northwest.

    Season: From late July through September in lawns and grassy areas and from late September through December in mulched garden beds. This species sometimes occurs all year long depending on warmer el nino weather conditions in the PNW.

    Dosage: 20 to 30 fresh specimens, 1/3 fresh ounce or 1-3 dried grams.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe subaeruginascens

    Psilocybe subaeruginascens Höhnel


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe subaeruginascens Höhnel
    Psilocybe aerugineomaculans (Höhnel) Singer i Smith

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-5.8 cm broad. Conic to convex or campanulate, to broadly subumbonate but not papillate, eventually broadly convex to plane and uplifting in age. Surface viscid when moist, translucent-striate along the margin, soon drying. Orangish brown to olive brown to gray greenish brown, hygrophanous, fading in drying to dull yellow orange to straw colored. Flesh white to concolorous with cap, soon bruising bluish where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment broadly adnate to adnexed, sometimes decurrent, crowded, and sometimes forking. Grayish brown to yellowish brown, eventually (with spore maturity) dark brown and often slightly mottled. Edges concolorous, bruising bluish where bruised.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-60 mm long by 1.5-3 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarged near the base, which is often adorned with radiating white rhizomorphs that bruise bluish when injured. Surface and flash whitish to concolorous with the cap, soon bruising bluish. Partial veil membranous, well developed, leaving a persistent membranous annulus in the superior regions of the stem, white in color until bruised, and then bluish, and usually dusted purplish brown from spores. Torn and fragile in age.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown to dark violet brown in deposit, rhomboid to subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, 7.7-12 by 6.6-8.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored, rarely 1-, 2-, or 3-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Fusoid-ventricose with a blunted end, 2.2-2.2 µm thick.
    • Cheilocystidia: Fusoid-ventricose to sublageniform 16-33 by 4.4-5.9 µm, with a neck 2.5-4 µm.

    Habitat: Grows gregariously to cespitose on soils enriched with woody debris, in wood chips, and in wood chips mixed with horse dung. Frequently found along trails or road-sides bordering deciduous forests. Fruiting April to July in temperate southern Japan and subtropical Indonesia. Probably extensively distributed between these two localities.

    Comment: Moderately potent. Koike et al. (1981) detected psilocybin and psilocin. This squat, collyboid, and annulate Psilocybe is unique to Asia. Guzmán (1983) notes that Singer and Smith's attempted synonymy of Psilocybe subaeruginascens with Stropharia venenata (=Psilocybe venenariata) was in error. See also Psilocybe subfimetaria and Psilocybe stuntzii.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe subaeruginosa

    Psilocybe subaeruginosa Cleland


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe australiana Guzmán & Watling (1978)
    Psilocybe tasmaniana Guzmán & Watling (1978)
    Psilocybe eucalypta Guzmán & Watling

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.5 cm broad. Conic to convex at first, soon expanding to broadly convex with a small umbo. Surface smooth, translucent-striate along the margin, pale brown to dark brown, hygrophanous, fading in drying to pallid brown to dingy grayish white.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, and with age may separate from the stem, leaving parallel, longitudinal gill fragments on the upper reaches. Soon smoky brown to purplish brown to dark purplish chocolate brown, edges concolorous.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50-125 mm long by 2-5 mm thick. Equal to narrowing towards the apex to slightly swollen at the base, from which white mycelium radiates. Hollow, cartilaginous, surface adorned with fine fibrils, finely striate and mealy towards the apex. Surface whitish, silky, with grayish brown streaks, flesh brownish, bruising bluish where injured. Partial veil white, finely cortinate, soon disappearing and leaving fragile traces in the upper regions of the stem.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid in both side and face view, 13-15 by 6.6-7.7 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored, infrequently 2-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 22-47 by 6-16.5 µm, fusoid-ventricose, mucronate with an elongated neck 2-4.5 µm. thick.
    • Cheilocystidia: Similar in form to pleurocystidia, 17-29 by 5.5-11 µm.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious in complex habitats such as soils rich in woody debris, decaying piles of leaves and twigs, sandy woody soils, gardens, and amongst bark chips from pine (Pinus radiata). Found from May through August. Known only from Australia and Tasmania.

    Comment: Moderately to potently active, judging by the bruising reaction. No analyses are known to me. This species is in the center of a constellation of close relatives, including Psilocybe australiana, Psilocybe eucalypta, and Psilocybe tasmaniana. A study by Chang and Mills (1992) sought to show synonymy between these taxa but, upon close reading of their work, some doubt remains if they had the true Psilocybe subaeruginosa and were making valid comparisons. Psilocybe subaeruginosa has pigmented pleurocystidia and is described as "chocolate brown", features Chang and Mills admit to not finding in any of the collections they studied. The chocolate brown cystidia of Psilocybe subaeruginosa differentiates this taxon from the mushrooms mentioned above, all of which have hyaline cystidia (Guzmán, Bandala, and King 1993). Hence, I think sufficient doubt is cast on their arguments for conspecificity. Better studies are needed.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe subcaerulipes

    Psilocybe subcaerulipes Hongo


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe argentipes K. Yokoy
    Psilocybe taiwanensis E. Horak, Guzmán i Desjardin
    Psilocybe thaizapoteca Guzmán, Karunar. i Ram.-Guill

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 2-3 cm broad. Conic to campanulate expanding in age to convex to subumbonate. Surface smooth viscid when wet and striate near the margin. Ochraceous to yellowish brown, sometimes olive toned, hygrophanous from the disc, fading in drying to light straw colored, bruising dark bluish where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to sinuate, pale brownish to purplish brown to deep violet with concolorous edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-70 mm long by 3-5 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarging and often curved at the base, flexuous, hollow, and featuring a coating of whitish fibrils in the lower regions. Whitish at first, soon ochraceous or reddish brown, especially towards the base. Partial veil cortinate, fragile, and usually not leaving a fibrillose annular zone on the stem. Flesh bruising bluish where injured.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid in side view; nearly ovoid in face view, 5.5-7.5 (8.5) by 3.3-4.4 (5.5) µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 15-22 by 5-7.5 µm, fusoid ventricose with an abbreviated or elongated neck 1-1.5 µm thick.

    Habitat: Gregarious to cespitose, fruiting from May to September in Japan (Otsu City, Shiga-Prefecture) in soils covered with mosses or grasses in open forests, often under pines, particularly Pinus densiflora.

    Comment: Potency unknown, likely to be moderately to highly active. Microscopically nearly identical to Psilocybe caerulipes, but differing in the size of the spores and its ecological distribution. Furthermore, Guzmán (1983) notes that Psilocybe caerulipes may be conspecific with Psilocybe muliercula (=Psilocybe wassonii) as they are difficult to separate taxonomically. Interfertility studies would clear up the question of conspecificity. See also Psilocybe venenata.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe subacutipilea

    Psilocybe subacutipilea Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, Garcí et Velázquez



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 7-10 mm in diam ., campanulate to subumbonate, subviscid to lubricous, glabrous, even to striate, hygrophanous, yellowish brown, grayish yellow to pale brownish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Subadnate, somewhat thick, grayish brown with violaceous tinges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-50 x 1-1.5 mm, cylindric, subbulbous, whitish yellow, smooth to fioccose toward the base, without pseudorhiza.
    • Context: Of the pileus whitish, thin. All the basidiomata turning blue-green when cut or bruised. KOH stains the pileus dark grayish brown, the stipe vinaceous brown and is negative in the context
    • Odor: Farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (7.5-) 8.5-9 (-11) x 5-6 (-7) µm, slightly subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, with a thick yellowish brown wall and with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: 22-32 x 8-10 µm, 2-, 3- or 4-spored, hyaline, ventricose to subpiriform.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 13-20 x 3.5-6 µm, hyaline, vesiculose to sublageniform with a short neck less 8 µm long, sometimes irregular in form with a short lateral neck, abundant but the gill edge is heteromorphous and thick.
    • Epicutis: A gelatinous layer 25-30 µm, thick, with irregular hyphae in diameter, 5-15 µm wide.
    • Hypodermium: With parallel hyphae 2-9 µm in diam. Context of the pileus with subglobose elements, thick-walled (1-1.5 µm thick), with brown incrusted pigment.
    • Trama: Gill trama parallel, hyphae irregular in diameter, hyaline or with brown pigment incrusted on the wall. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Caespitose in soil, in a meadow with grazing grasses, in subtropical zone, at 1100 m ait. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: COLOMBIA, Departamento Antioquia, Municipio Porce, near the road Medellín to Amalfi, zone of Puente Gabino, Aug. 31, 1990, Guzmán 29561-B (holotype HUA, isotype XAL).

    Discussion: This species is close to Psilocybe acutipilea (Speg.) Guzmán, known only from Brazil, of which it differs by the not papillate pileus and not caespitose habit and by the neck of the cheilocystidia (8-10 µm long) (Guzmán, 1983). Psilocybe subacutipilea belongs to Sect. Mexicana.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [51: 230-231]

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    Psilocybe subcubensis

    Psilocybe subcubensis Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (10-) 18-50 (-70) mm in diam., conic to convex, becoming campanulate to gradually expanding to plain. Color copper in center to a light golden brown. Hygrophanous in drying, remnants of a veil, and bluing in the edge of the cap when injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to adnexed to seceding. At first dark gray becoming deep violet gray to dark purplish brown. Sometimes mottled with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: (30-) 50-80 (-100) x (3-) 4-6 (-10) mm, equal, hollow, stem whitish to a creamy white or yellow brown when faded, easily staining blue where damaged. Fibrillose below the annulus.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (9.9-) 11-13 (-14) x 7.7-8.8 x 6.6-7.1 µm. Sporeprint chocolate to purple-brown.

    Habitat: Gregarious, rarely solitary or scattered, on cow dung, rarely on horse manure. Also in rich soil in pastures and meadows, along roadsides in manure heaps.

    Distribution: This is a pantropical and subtropical species. Found in Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Honduras, El Salvador, Venezuela, Australia, India, Nepal, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and parts of the Philippine Islands.

    Season: Fruiting in summer but also in other seasons (as do most finicolous fungi).

    Dosage: Same as for Psilocybe cubensis. One ounce fresh or over, 1 dried gram to as many as 3-5 grams dried=1 fresh ounce. Ten doses in one dried ounce. The equivalent of a Mazatec ceremonial dosage.

    Comment: This species is macroscopically similar to Psilocybe cubensis with the difference occurring only in the size of the spores. Psilocybe subcubensis has smaller spore than Psilocybe cubensis.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe subfimetaria

    Psilocybe subfimetaria Guzmán & A.H. Sm.


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe sierrae Singer

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.5-2 cm broad. Conic to campanulate, expanding with age to broadly campanulate but not sharply umbonate. Surface smooth, viscid when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle, and translucent-striate near the margin. Ochraceous brown to olive brown, hygrophanous, fading in drying to a straw color. Flesh whitish, bruising bluish where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnexed, clay becoming violaceous brown, with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-45 mm long 2-3 mm thick, equal to slightly enlarged towards the base, white to dingy white or pallid, bruising bluish where injured. Well-developed partial veil cortinate, usually leaving a fibrillose annular zone that can approach a true annulus in the upper regions of the stem. Flesh whitish, bruising bluish.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark violaceous brown in deposit, subellipsoid in face view, and subellipsoid, sometimes irregularly so, in side view, 10-14 by 6.6-7.7 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 20-28 by 5-6.6 µm, fusoid-ventricose or more frequently lageniform with an extended neck 1-2 1-2 µm broad.

    Habitat: Solitary to gregarious on dung, primarily in grassy areas. Reported from locations near Siltcoos Station, Oregon, and Vancouver, British Columbia in October through November, and near Chovetten, Chile, in August. Probably much more extensive in its distribution than presently realized. I have found this species in habitats also supporting Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe liniformans.

    Comment: Active, but I do not know how potent. This mushroom resembles Psilocybe semilanceata and is definitively separated from it by microscopic features. Macroscopically, this species is distinguished from Psilocybe semilanceata if the annulus of Psilocybe subfimetaria persists into maturity. Furthermore, Psilocybe semilanceata is sharply umbonate, while Psilocybe subfimetaria is not. Psilocybe subfimetaria is a relatively rare species and is very close microscopically to Psilocybe fimetaria, from which it is separated by spore size. Also, Psilocybe subfimetaria often grows directly out of dung, while Psilocybe semilanceata prefers grasses. (Manured grasslands can make this judgment difficult.) The overall aspect, fairly persistent annular zone, and nonpapillate cap can help narrow the field of candidates to Psilocybe subfimetaria. See also Psilocybe stuntzii var. tenuis.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe subtropicalis

    Psilocybe subtropicalis Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 20-26 mm in diam, subconvex to subcampanulate, subpapillate, sublubricous to dry, glabrous, even to striate toward the margin, reddish brown to brown, hygrophanous, fading to straw colour, staining dark blue to blackish when moist, almost black when dry mainly toward the margin.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate or adnexed, pale brown to cinnamon brown or blackish violet, with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-80 x 1-3 mm, cylindric, whitish to concolourous with the pileus, hollow, caerulescent, covered with floccose appressed white fibrils, with a subbulbous hollow base, up to 10 mm in diam in dry, without pseudorhiza. Veil absent in the adult.
    • Context: Whitish, fleshy in the pileus, subfleshy in the stipe, staining blue when cut.
    • Odor: And taste slightly farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5.5-) 6.5-7 (-8) x 5-5.5 (-6) x 4-5.5 µm, subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid in side view, with a thick wall (up to 1.5 µm thick), brownish yellow, with a broad germ pore at one end and an acute short appendage at the distal end.
    • Basidia: 17.5-26.5 x 5.5-8 µm, 4-spored, clavate or subcylindric, hyaline.
    • Pleurocistidia: (12-) 13-21 (-22.5) x (4-) 5-6 (-7) µm, ventricose subacuminate or ventricose rostrate, hyaline, more or less common.
    • Cheilocystidia: (16-) 20-28 (-32)(-42) x 5-6.5 (-7) µm, ventricose or subcylindric, irregularly branching mainly at the top, hyaline, abundant.
    • Subhymenium: Formed by subglobose elements, 3-4.8 µm diam, hyaline or yellowish.
    • Trama: Trama regular, formed by hyaline thin-walled hyphae, 3.2-24 µm wide.
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized, formed by hyaline repent hyphae 2.4-4 µm wide.
    • Hypodermium: With subglobose elements mixed with hyphae 3-12 µm in diam, hyaline or incrusted with brown yellowish pigment. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: In small groups on soil, in open places of subtropical (mesophytic) forests. Known from Guatemala and Mexico.

    Studied material: GUATEMALA: approx. 25km south of Guatemala City, Santa Elena Barillas, Jun. 28, 1990, Sommerkamp 371 (Herb. Univ. San Carlos Guatemala & XAL). MEXICO: State of Veracruz, old road Xalapa to Coatepec, km 2.5, Parque Ecológico F.J. Clavijero, Oct. 6, 1986, Montoya 910 (Holotype, XAL). Huatusco to Elotepec road, Rancho San Rafael, Aug. 26, 1984, Sampieri 987 (XAL). Totutla to Xalapa road, near Axocoapan, Jun. 29, 1984, Chacón 2259; Sept. 26, 1985, Chacón 3150 (both in XAL).

    Discussion: The subbulbous, hollow base of the stipe, the mycenoid habit, the branched cheilocystidia and narrow pleurocystidia are the most typical features of this caerulescent species. Psilocybe herrerae Guzmán, is a close taxon, but differs in the more branched cheilocystidia and thicker pleurocystidia (6-9 µm), and in the presence of pseudorhiza (Guzmán, 1983). Due to the form and size of the spores, this species belongs to Sect. Cordispora. Psilocybe subtropicalis is widely distributed in subtropical forests. Psilocybe mexicana grows also in the same Guatemaltecan locality.

    source - Bibliotheca Mycologica [159: 107-109]

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    Psilocybe subviscida

    Psilocybe subviscida (Peck) Kauffm




    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 0.5-2 cm broad. Campanulate expanding with age to convex umbonate or broadly convex while retaining an obtuse umbo, often variable in form, and at maturity to nearly plane. Margin translucent-striate when moist and sometimes decorated with flecks of veils remnants. Yellowish to chestnut brown to reddish brown, fading in drying to pale grayish yellow and usually with the umbo remaining reddish brown. Surface viscid to subviscid when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle, soon drying.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, subdistant, and broad. Whitish at first, soon becoming dark brownish.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-40 mm long by 1-2 mm thick. Equal to tapering downwards near the base. Surface covered at first with fine whitish fibrils. Partial veil thin to obscure, leaving and evanescent annular zone of fibrils usually darkened by spores when present.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, 6-8.5 by 4-5.4 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 20-50 by 5-8 µm, ventricose, then lageniform, with a flexuous neck 2-3.5 µm thick.

    Habitat: Usually found growing in grassy areas, in well-manured grounds or in dung. Also reported growing in mossy areas and in decayed conifer substrata. Grows in the late spring to summer, reported from the United States (Washington, Oregon, Michigan, New York) and Scotland (Shetland). Thought to be widely distributed.

    Comment: Not active. Since this species can grow on such a wide spectrum of habitats, I would expect that its actual distribution is far more extensive than presently reported. The specimens I have seen have had rubbery textures. See also Psilocybe coprophila, Psilocybe montana, Psilocybe merdaria, Psilocybe moellerii.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe subyungensis

    Psilocybe subyungensis Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe yungensis Singer & A.H.Sm. (1958)
    Psilocybe yungensis var. diconica A.H.Smith (1958)
    Psilocybe acutissima Heim (1959)
    Psilocybe chiapanensis Guzmán (1995)
    Psilocybe isauri Singer (1959)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: about 10 mm diam., conic to subpapillate, smooth but somewhat striate at the margin, subviscid to dry, hygrophanous, reddish brown or brown, fading to yellowish, but staining blue to blackish when injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate, violaceous brown, edges concolorous or some whitish and floccose.
    • Stem/Stipe: About 35 x 1 mm, cylindrical, hollow, reddish brown to darker toward the base, appressed silky floccose from white fibrils, principally at the base. Veil rudimentary and fugacious in the adult stage.
    • Context: Brownish, bluing.
    • Odor: And taste unknown.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (4.4-) 5-6 (-7) x (4-) 4.4-5.5 (-6) x 3.3-4 µm, rhomboid in face view, subelliptic in side view, brownish yellow, with thick wall and distinct broad germ pore, with a short basal appendage.
    • Basidia: 10-20 x 4.4-6 µm, four-spored, hyaline, vesiculose-cylindric, with a slight constriction in the middle.
    • Pleurocistidia: 8.8-11 x 3.8-5.5 µm, hyaline, scanty, sublageniform or fusoid-ventricose with short neck, 1-2 µm diam.
    • Cheilocystidia: 16.5-25 x (5.5-) 7.7-12 µm, hyaline, lageniform, fusoid-ventricose, subpyriform, clavate, ventricose with constrictions in the middle, ampullaceus to somewhat irregularly branched, often reminding one of basidia.
    • Subhymenium: Brownish yellow with more or less parallel hyphae, strongly irregularly pigmented on the walls.
    • Trama: Regular, subhyaline or yellowish, with parallel hyphae 7-12 µm, broad, with pigment incrusted on the thick walls, with appear perforated.
    • Epicutis: Subgelatinized, hyaline with elongated hyphae 3-5 µm broad.
    • Hypodermium: Like the subhymenium and trama. Some parts of the epicutis and subhymenium with blue green diffused pigment in KOH. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious on very rotten wood inside the forest. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: VENEZUELA, State of Miranda, SW of Macaro, near El Arado, July 28, 1972. Dumont VE-6363 (Holotype MER, Isotype, NY).

    Discussion: Psilocybe subyungensis is close to Psilocybe yungensis, but the pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia separate the former from the latter. It is also close to Psilocybe fuliginosa (Murr.) Smith but according to a study of the type (NY) and Smith's paper (1948), has larger spores, (5.5-) 6-7 (-8) µm, the cheilocystidia are more uniformly lageniform 16-28 (-33) x 4.4-6.6 µm.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 249-250]

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    Psilocybe tampanensis

    Psilocybe tampanensis Guzmán & S.H.Pollock (1978)



    A very interesting species. It has only been collected in the wild twice. All cultures that are in circulation today originate from one single specimen that was cloned by mycologist Stephen Pollock in 1977. This mushroom was found in Tampa, Florida hence the name tampanensis.
    This species produces sclerotia (hardened mycelial structures) on grass seed and in the casing layer.
    Variability within a multispore germination is great resulting in some strains that are good sclerotia-producers, some that are good fruitbody-producers, some that are both and some that are neither.
    We recommend making different isolates from a multispore germination and testing each of them for their properties. Alternatively you can start with multispore cultures and clone some mushrooms or sclerotia.
    Because of successive cloning for years most available strains are heavily degenerated and produce no or only sterile (sporeless) mushrooms.
    We have been working for some time with a strain that did not produce fertile mushrooms but have recently acquired new one. This strain does produce fertile fruitbodies and although they are not perfectly shaped they do produce visible sporeprints.
    We grow the sclerotia and fruitbodies of this species on sterilised grass seed (110 grams seed / 180 ml water). We have had jars that produced up to 70 grams (wet weight) of sclerotia in 4 months!

    Substrate:
    ryegrass seeds, cow manure.
    Temperature:
    colonization/fruiting: 24-27°C / 22-24°C

    source - www.mushmush.nl

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    Psilocybe tasmaniana

    Psilocybe tasmaniana Guzmán & Watling (1978)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe subaeruginosa Guzmán & Watling (1978)
    Psilocybe australiana Guzmán & Watling (1978)
    Psilocybe eucalypta Guzmán & Watling

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-2 cm broad. Convex to subcampanulate, but not umbonate or papillate. Surface smooth, subviscid when moist, striate only near the margin, which is often adorned with whitish remnants from the veil. Tawny orangish brown, hygrophanous, fading in drying to a dull straw color or dingy yellow.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate, becoming purplish brown with spore maturity, with the edges remaining whitish.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-65 mm long by 1-2 mm thick. Equal overall. Surface silky fibrillose, white to nearly concolorous with the cap. Flesh bruising bluish where injured, especially at the base. Partial veil well developed, finely cortinate, white, soon disappearing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, ellipsoid to subellipsoid in side view and subovoid in face view, 10-13 (15) by 7-8.8 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 19-24 by 5.5-9.9 µm, fusoid-ventricose with an abbreviated apex, 1.6-2.7 µm broad.
    • Cheilocystidia: Fusoid ventricose to sublageniform, with extended neck 5-11 by 1.6-3.3 µm.

    Habitat: Grows solitary or gregariously in April and May on dung (possibly kangaroo) or in dung-enriched debris in open areas within Eucalyptus forests. Reported from Tasmania, New Zealand, and Australia.

    Comment: Active, potency unknown. This species is closely related to Psilocybe subaeruginosa and Psilocybe cyanescens. Chang and Mills (1992) tried to make Psilocybe tasmaniana, Psilocybe australiana i Psilocybe eucalypta subordinate synonyms of Psilocybe subaeruginosa. For reasons described on pages 91-92, I am skeptical of their interpretations. Furthermore, they made conclusions about the identification of mushrooms that they called Psilocybe tasmaniana that are not referenced against any type listed by Guzmán and Watling, which is surprising considering the strong taxonomic proposals they put forward. If their identifications were in error, and they then "proved" synonymy between the collections, the analyzed collections may indeed be biologically compatible because they incorrectly delimited one species into the other aforementioned taxa. Interestingly, Johnston and Buchanan (1996), while endorsing most of the proposed synonymy of Chang and Mills, selectively exclude Psilocybe tasmaniana as a species found in New Zealand (nor do they list it as a synonym!) although Chang and Mills (1992) references a collection from Taranak, New Zealand. Clearly, more studies are needed, using better reference standards and systematics, to adequately answer the questions raised here.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe thrausta

    Psilocybe thrausta (Schulz.ex Kalchbr) Bon


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe thrausta (Schulzer ex Kalchbremer) Orton
    Psilocybe squamosa var. thrausta (Schulzer ex Kalchbremer) Guzmán
    Stropharia thrausta (Schulzer ex Kalchbremer) Bon


    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 3-7 cm broad. Obtusely conic at first, soon becoming convex to broadly convex, and finally nearly plane with or without an umbo. Viscid when moist from a gelatinous pellicle that is usually separable, soon drying. Surface adorned with whitish, floccose scales, especially near the margin. Orangish red to reddish brown or brick red. Margin initially ornamented with small scales, soon becoming smooth.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, or sinuate, sometimes uncinate, close to subdistant, moderately broad, with two to three tiers of intermediate gills. Pallid gray at first, soon becoming grayish brown and eventually dark purplish brown when fully mature.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50-100 (120) mm long by 3.7 (8) mm thick. Nearly equal to swollen and often curved at the base. Hollow in age. Pallid towards the apex and more brownish below. Covered at first with small brown to reddish brown floccose scales to the annulus, and usually with orangish rhizomorphs protruding about the base. Partial veil membranous, fragile, leaving a superior membranous annulus often absent in age.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Grayish purplish brown in deposit, close to Psilocybe squamosa, in size, but with an eccentric germ pore, 11-14 by 6.6-8.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: (36) 44-66 by 3.3-6 µm, sublageniform to filamentous, submucronate, with an extended and flexuous neck, 3-4 µm.

    Habitat: Scattered in the fall in decayed wood substratum or wood debris. Reported from the United States (the Pacific Northwest, New York, Maryland), Japan, and northern to central Europe. Probably more widely distributed across the world.

    Comment: Not active, edible according to some, but not palatable. Høiland (1978) detected no psilocybin. This species was once considered a variety of Stropharia squamosa (now a Psilocybe) and is very similar to it in appearance, differing in the cap coloration.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe uruguayensis

    Psilocybe uruguayensis Singer ex Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-30 mm diam., convex, smooth subviscid, brownish to brownish yellow, not staining green or blue in any part.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to somewhat sinuate, brownish to violaceous-brown, unicolorous.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-55 x 2-3 mm, cylindric, not bulbous, smooth, whitish above to brownish or concolorous with pileus below. Annulus membranous, whitish, not staining blue.
    • Context: Whitish, not bluing.
    • Odor: And taste unknown.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (7.5-) 8.8-11.3 (-12.7) x 7-8 (-9) x 6-7 µm, ovoid or subrhomboid in face view, inequilateral, smooth, with thick yellowish brown wall, with truncated apex because of a flattened germ pore.
    • Basidia: 25-30 x 7.5-9.5 µm, including sterigmata which are 4-6 µm long, four-spored, hyaline, subcylindric or vesiculose.
    • Pleurocistidia: None.
    • Cheilocystidia: 24.5-32 x 4.5-9 µm, hyaline, abundant, forming a sterile band at the edge of the gills, ventricose-elongated, somewhat pedicellate, but with a narrow and long neck which is 1.5-2 µm broad, sometimes branched in old specimens.
    • Subhymenium: Pale yellowish brown, without incrusted pigment.
    • Trama: Regular, same color as the subhymenium or hyaline, with inflated hyphae up to 35 µm broad.
    • Epicutis: With a thick layer of gelatinous hyphae, parallel to the surface. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious on horse dung, only known from the type locality.

    Studied material: URUGUAY, Montevideo, Parque Nacional Carrasco, April 3, 1960, García Zorrón 2439 (Holotype BAFC: Isotypes in MICH and ENCB).

    Discussion: The name Psilocybe uruguayensis was given to a collection in BAFC by Singer but remained unpublished. Singer thinks that this species stains blue when fresh. It is close to Psilocybe blattariopsis (Speg.) Sing. but this species has brown pleurocystidia according to a study of the type (Spegazzini 1535, LPS). It is also close to Psilocybe subaeruginascens Höhnel, Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & Ott and Psilocybe venenata (Imai) Imaz. & Hongo, but differs in the size of the cheilocystidia and spores; it is interesting to see the geographical distribution of these species; Psilocybe subaeruginascens is only known from Java, Psilocybe venenata from Japan and Psilocybe stuntzii from the NW of North America. (See discussion of Psilocybe blattariopsis).

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 250-251]

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    Psilocybe uxpanapensis

    Psilocybe uxpanapensis Guzmán (1979)



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 19-30 mm in diam., conic to subconvex or subumbonate, sometimes becoming plane or depressed at the disc. Even and glabrous, marked with translucent striations when moist, lubricous or subviscid, hygrophanous. Color reddish-brown or chocolate-brown to pale ochre. Blackish when old and staining blue in young specimens when handled.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate or adnexed to sinuate. Brownish-violet to blackish-violet with white floccose edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-90 x 1.3 mm. Equal but sinuous and flexuous, hollow, reddish-brown or brownish, fading to blackish. Densely fibrillose floccose from whitish appressed fibrils. Turning Blue where cut or injured.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (4.9-) 5.5-6.6 (-7.7) x 4.4-5.5 (-6) x 3.5-4.4 µ. Subrhomboid or rhomboid in the front and subellipsoid from the side, thick walled and with a distinct germ pore. Sporeprint yellow-brown.

    Habitat: Solitary or gregarious on soil or near trails.

    Distribution: In tropical virgin rain forests. Known only from Mexico (Uxpanapa region).

    Season: During the summer rains.

    Dosage: Unknown.

    Comment: According to Guzmán, many fungi from the tropical virgin rainforests are almost lost. The vegetation for this and other similar species are almost destroyed throughout Mexico. The very area where this species was collected by Guzmán and Dr. A. L. Welden in 1976 was completely overturned in 1978 and is now a subagricultural land and meadow lands region. The name of this species is for the type locality.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe venenata



    synonyms:
    Psilocybe venenata (Imai) Imazecki
    Psilocybe fasciata Hongo

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-6 cm broad. Initially conic, soon convex to subumbonate to nearly plane in age, often depressed in the center with slightly upturned margins. Chestnut to cinnamon brown to olive brown, then pinkish buff to light blonde brown in drying, often grayish green, rarely whitish, readily bruising bluish where injured. Surface smooth, viscid when moist, translucent-striate near the margin, which is often adorned with minute fibrillose veil remnants, especially when young.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, whitish at first, soon light grayish to dingy yellowish, and eventually purplish brown to grayish violet brown with spore maturity. Edges pallid to whitish fringed.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-90 mm long by 2-6 (9) mm thick, equal to uneven, fibrous, silky white, enlarged near the base from thick white rhizomorphs radiate. Partial veil thickly cortinate to nearly floccose, leaving a fragile fibrillose annulus or annular zone in the superior regions of the stem, soon disappearing or dusted with purplish brown spores. Flesh whitish, bruising azure blue where bruised.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, subellipsoid, (8) 9.9-12 (14) by 5.5-7 (8.8) µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 17-30 (36) by 4.4-7.5 µm, fusoid-ventricose to lageniform with an extended and flexuous neck, 1-2.5 µm thick.

    Habitat: Gregarious to cespitose in the summer and autumn in disturbed habitats, in soils rich with lignicolous debris, and in deciduous or bamboo forests. Also found in composting soils rich with mixtures of rice hulls, straw or manure. Sometimes grows in lawns, along roadsides, or along interfaces in Japanese gardens. Reported only from Japan, but I suspect that this species is probably more widely distributed.

    Comment: Probably potent, although no analyses are known to me. Psilocybe venenata is a misnomer, as no deaths have actually occurred (despite erroneous reports) (Ott 1993). The symptoms produced are typical of other potent psilocybin species. For most collectors, the lighter color, strong bluing reaction, cespitose habit, and locality narrow the field of candidates to this species. Given its preference for habitats, this species is likely to be cultivated outdoors amongst bamboo or in gardenlike settings in a similar fashion to Psilocybe cyanescens and Psilocybe azurescens. See also Psilocybe argentipes and Psilocybe subcaerulipes.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe villarrealiae

    Psilocybe villarrealiae Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe villarrealii Guzmán

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 40-50 mm long, convexed and plain, hygrophanous and ochraceus with some bluing and blue green along the edge of the cap. Margin translucent-striate.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to subsinuate, and somewhat violaceous in color at the margin of the gills.
    • Stem/Stipe: 50-60 x 4-7 mm. Reddish brown with white scabulous fibrils on stipe. Bruising blue when damaged or with age.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5.5-) 6.5-7.5 (-8) (-9) x (4.5) 5-6 µm. Sporeprint: Violet to Chocolate-brown.

    Habitat: Common in the Mexican State of Jalisco, the influence of many new, as well as old ecosystems and microclimates are important for the distribution of these species. Riparian forests extend from sea level to about 2800 m elevation, with species of Populus predominating in arid and semi-arid regions of northern Mexico and species of Alnus in more temperate zones with cooler climates area good habitat for finding this species. Psilocybe villarrealiae is a big mushroom, preferring to grow near rivers and along river creeks with vegetation classified as clod. Subtropical forests appear to be a natural humid habitat for these species, as well as are open spaces and under bushes. Sometimes, large collections of this species can be observed near Magnolia spp., and Alnus spp., where wood debris is buried and mixed with muddy soil, red soil, in pine forest mixed with oaks, and in subtropical forests near small creeks.

    Distribution: It has a logistic distribution in Jalisco and can be found in the towns of San Sebastian del Oeste, Mascota, and Zapopan. Psilocybe villarrealiae also occurs in many other regions of Jalisco such as in Sierra de Quila.

    Season: Generally, rainy season occurs in certain parts of Mexico from June through September. However, we report that sometimes the mushrooms appear as early as May and continue to fruit until October.

    Dosage: Unknown.

    Comment: Psilocybe villarrealiae acts as a second decomposer, growing from sawdust, which we were able to observe in the town of Mascota, and we also found it to be growing out doors as well.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Psilocybe washingtonensis

    Psilocybe washingtonensis A.H.Sm. (1946)




    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-2 cm broad. Obtusely conic to convex. Margin incurved at first, then straight. Deep walnut brown, lighter towards the margin, hygrophanous, fading to dull cinnamon or pale pecan in drying. Surface smooth, though the margin may be ornamented with faint remnants of the veil, viscid when moist from a gelatinous pellicle, separable only in shreds when wet. Context thin, pliant, and nearly concolorous with the cap when moist.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate or subdecurrent, close to subdistant, with two or three tiers of intermediate gills. Color slightly darker than the cap at maturity.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-50 mm long by 1.5-2.5 mm thick. Equal, tubular, and pliant. Concolorous with the cap, but becoming blackish brown in age from the base upwards. Surface covered with grayish fibrils and adorned with grayish mat of mycelium around the base. Flesh dark brown, fading in drying to pallid tan. Partial veil thinly cortinate, leaving fibrillose patches on the stem and remnants along the cap margin.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Purplish brown in deposit, ellipsoid to slightly ovoid, 6-7.5 (8) by 4-4.5 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 38-56 (64) by 9-12 µm, narrowly fusoid-ventricose to lageniform with expanded necks.
    • Cheilocystidia: 18-38 by 7-12 µm, variable, fusoid-ventricose, often mucronate, or clavate to capitate with an abbreviated neck.

    Habitat: Scattered to gregarious in forests, directly on decaying conifer wood in the fall. Reported from Mt. Angeles on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State and along the Salmon River near Welches, Oregon. Probably more widely distributed.

    Comment: Activity unknown. Psilocybe washingtonensis could be weakly psilocybin. It bears similarity to Psilocybe physaloides and to a lesser degree Psilocybe pelliculosa, although the latter species lacks pleurocystidia. The overall aspect of this mushroom places it into a cluster of difficult-to-delineate taxa, unless microscopic examination is conducted. Several mycenoid Hypholomas (=Naematolomas), look very similar, including Hypholomas udum, Hypholomas dispersum, and allies. See also Psilocybe silvatica and Psilocybe crobula.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe wassoniorum

    Psilocybe wassoniorum Guzmán & Pollock (1979)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe fagicola R. Heim & Cailleux
    Psilocybe fagicola var. mesocystidiata Guzmán (1978)
    Psilocybe xalapensis Guzmán & López (1979)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-2 cm broad. Conic to subcampanulate, sometimes with a slight umbo, smooth, translucent-striate when moist, dark reddish brown to pale brown, fading in drying to an ochre yellow. Flesh thin, fragile, soon bruising bluish where injured.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnexed, close, pale yellow brown when young, darkening with maturity and becoming dark purplish brown with paler edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-40 mm long by 1-2 mm thick, equal to slightly enlarged, hollow, reddish brown to blackish brown, and covered with a sheath of white floccose fibrillose patches. Narrowing towards the base into a long pseudorhiza up to 10 mm long. Partial veil cortinate, fragile, and soon disappearing.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, (6) 6.6-7.7 (8.5) by 4.0-5.5 µm, subellipsoid to subrhomboid in side view.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Absent.
    • Cheilocystidia: 14-28 by 5-6.6 µm, ventricose near the base and sublageniform with a flexuous neck 1-2 µm thick, sometimes branched.

    Habitat: Solitary or in small groups in open areas of subtropical deciduous forests. Originally found from Veracruz, Mexico, in June and July, at an elevation of 1700-1800 meters. Probably more widely distributed.

    Comment: Active, but potency unknown. Originally found by the late Steven Pollock, and re-collected by Jim Jacobs, this relatively rare species is distinct for its solitary habit and long pseudorhiza. Named to honor the works of the Wassons, this species is not related to Psilocybe wassonii (=Psilocybe muliercula). See also Psilocybe herrerae, a similar species with a long pseudorhiza.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe wayanadensis

    Psilocybe wayanadensis K. A. Thomas, Manim. & Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-55 mm diam., convex, becoming appianate to slightly depressed, with a small acute umbo at the centre, smooth, glabrous, slightly sticky when moist, translucent-striate towards margin, initially brownish grey (5C2), brownish orange (5C3) or greyish brown (5D3), uniformly turning to greyish brown (6E3, 7E3, 7D3) with brownish grey umbo (5F2, 6F2), sometimes greyish yellow (4C3), greyish orange (5B4), brownish orange (5C5), or light brown (5D6) towards centre, pale yellow (4A3) or greyish yellow (4B3) towards margin with olive brownish grey (4F2) umbo, hygrophanous; margin decurved, becoming plane, entire, sometimes becoming eroded or fissile.
    • Context: Context up to 4 mm thick, whitish or concolorous with the pileus surface.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed to sinuate, initially greyish yellow (4B3), orange grey (5B2) or brownish orange (5C3), becoming greyish brown (6D3) to brown (6E4, 7E4), close, up to 7 mm wide; edge pale, entire.
    • Stem/Stipe: 20-80 x 2-10 mm, central, terete, hollow, orange white (4A2) or greyish yellow (4B3), smooth, with a superior, membranous, white annulus; base enlarged, with strigose basal mycelium. Stipe and pileus turning blue on bruising or aging.
    • Odor: Sharp and unpleasant when mature.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 8-9.5 (-11) x 6.5-7 (-8) x (5-) 5.5-6 (-6.5) µm, lenticular, subrhomboidal in face-view, ellipsoid in side-view, pale brownish or pale violet-brown, smooth, thick-walled, apically truncated by a germ-pore. Spore-print dark brown (8F4, 8F5).
    • Basidia: (21.5-) 26-28 (-34) x 7-9 (-10) µm, subventricose or cylindric to clavate, hyaline, 4-spored; sterigmata up to 4 µm long.
    • Pleurocistidia: (16-) 18-30 (-34) x (7-) 9-12 (-14.5) µm, hyaline, thin-walled, subventricose, with an acute apex and narrow base, often with a subgelatinous secretion at the apex.
    • Cheilocystidia: (11-) 13-21 (-26.5) x (5-) 6-9 (-12) µm, subventricose, ventricose-fusoid or sublageniform, thin-walled, hyaline, with an acute or obtuse apex, often with a subgelatinous secretion at the apex.
    • Trama: Hymenophoral, regular to subregular; hyphae 2-20 µm wide, thin-walled or wall up to 1 µm thick, hyaline to pale brownish. Context in the pileus interwoven, pale brownish, with 2-24 µm wide, hyaline hyphae, thin-walled or wall up to 1.5 µm thick. Context in the stipe composed of 2-22 µm wide, thin-walled. hyaline or faintly bluish hyphae.
    • Epicutis: An ixocutis; hyphae 2-12.5 µm wide, thin-walled. with faint hyaline encrustations. Stipitipellis a repent cutis, with 1.5-14.5 µm wide, thin-walled, hyaline or bluish hyphae.
    • Caulocystidia: Similar to cheilocystidia in shape, restricted to the extreme tip of the stipe, either in dusters or scattered, often with a subgelatinous secretion at the apex. Clamp-connections present.

    Habitat: On soil rich with wood chips, gregarious to scattered, July-October. Known only from the type locality.

    Studied material: India, Kerala State, Wayanad District, Muthanga, 21 July 1999, Thomas T-320a (holotype, XAL; isotype, L); 25 July 1999, Thomas T-320b (XAL, L); 27 July 1999, Thomas T-320c (XAL, L); 31 October 1999, Thomas T-320d (XAL, L).

    Discussion: The annulus, the subrhomboid, thick-walled spores, and the bluing reaction place this new species in Sect. Stuntzii Guzmán (Guzmán, 1983). It is different from Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & Ott from the USA in the presence of pleurocystidia and in the shape of the cheilocystidia. Psilocybe subaeruginascens Hohnel from Java and southern Japan is a close species, but the spores are (8-) 9-10 (-13) x 7-8 (-8.5) x 5-7 µm and the cheilocystidia are (16-) 18-23 (-33) x (4.5-) 5.5-9 µm (Guzmán, 1983). Psilocybe septentrionalis (Guzmán) Guzmán (Guzmán, 1995), known only from northern Japan, is also a very close species, but differs in the size and shape of pleurocystidia (14-23 x 9-10 µm) and cheilocystidia (16-25 x 5.5-7.5 µm).

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [83: 198-202]

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    Psilocybe weilii

    Psilocybe weilii Guzmán, Stamets & F. Tapia



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 2-6 cm broad. Campanulate to bluntly conic with an inrolled margin when young, then incurved, often with an irregular, soon expanding to broadly convex to nearly plane, to uplifted in age. Dark chestnut brown to deep olivaceous brown, typically with a blackish brown zone around the disc, where flesh is 3-4 mm thick at its center. Strongly hygrophanous, fading in drying to pallid brown to light brown. Flesh whitish, bruising bluish. Surface viscid when moist from a separable gelatinous pellicle, translucent-straite near the margin, which can split in age and become tough and opaque in drying.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to sinuate with two tiers of intermediate gills, close, even, broad, light brown overall with pallid, floccose edges. Becoming dark chocolate brown at maturity.
    • Stem/Stipe: 25-70 mm long by 4-8 mm thick. Equal, swelling towards the base, which projects white rhizomorphs. White, becoming dingy brown, bruising bluish overall in age or from drying, covered with a well-developed sheath of whitish fibrillose patches below, and pruinose above. Cartilaginous, strigose, hollow, stuffed with a whitish pith. Partial veil cortinate, leaving a fibrillose annular zone sometimes dusted with purplish violet-brown spores.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark violet grayish black in deposit, subellipsoid in side view, subrhomboid to subellipsoid in face view, 5.5-6.5 by 4-5 µm in side view.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: Abundant, subfusoid or ventricose-rostrate with short apex, or sublageniform, 10.5-21.5 (24) by 5-9.5 (10.5) µm.
    • Cheilocystidia: Lageniform with short, single, or branched neck, 20-37.5 by 5-6.5 µm.

    Habitat: Gregarious to cespitose, sometimes scattered in red clay soil topped with a thin layer of needles from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) underneath sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua). First reported from southeastern Cherokee County, in northern Georgia, after hurricane Opal swept through in 1995. Fruiting from early September through November, between temperatures of 45°-80°F, preferring 60°C-75°.

    Comment: 0.61% psilocybin, 0.27% psilocin, 0.05% baeocystin, and 0.32% tryptophan. This is the first report of a lignicolous, caerulescent Psilocybe from Georgia. The association with pine needles, along an interface ecosystem (just beyond the edge of an eight-year-old yard lined with shrubs, and in red-clay soils), are habits typical of many other Psilocybes. Additionally, the strong bluing reaction and its tendency to form clusters are characteristics also shared with Psilocybe caerulescens, Psilocybe baeocystis, Psilocybe aztecorum and Psilocybe heliconia. The name Psilocybe weilii is being reserved as a provisional name (nom. prov.) until the name is published in a mycological journal. (Guzmán, Tapia, and Stamets 1996). The name honors Andrew Weil and his role in promoting the beneficial properties of mushrooms.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe weraroa

    Psilocybe weraroa Borov., Oborník & Noordel. (2011)


    synonyms:
    Secotium novae-zelandiae G.Cunn. (1924)
    Weraroa novae-zelandiae (G.Cunn.) Singer (1958)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 10-30 mm in diameter, 30-50 mm tall. Light brown to tan when very young, maturing to bluish grey often with blue to bluish green stains especially where damaged.
    • Stem/Stipe: Up to 40 mm long, cartilaginous, white to grayish blue, yellowish brown at the base, bluing where damaged.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Chambered, chocolate brown gleba.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 12-14 (17) by (6) 7-8.5 (10.8) µm, elliptical and smooth, brown. Spores are not discharged as prints and must be extracted by centrifuge to concentrate samples for microscopy.

    Habitat: Dead tree ferns and other woody debris. Climate temperate.

    Comment: Weraroa novae-zelandiae (Weraroa novaezelandiae) is a rare secotioid form of caerulescent Psilocybe known only from the North Island of New Zealand. In general, secotioid mushrooms appear to be lumpy, malformed mushrooms that never open up to expose their gills (or tubes in boletes). A cross section will reveal a convoluted mass of gills and sometimes a stem. Since the cap never opens up, the spores are not forcibly discharged and the mushroom must rely on animals or insects to eat and disperse them. Slugs seem to be especially attracted to Weraroa novae-zelandiae and most specimens are found to have slug damage. If not eaten, the mushrooms can persist for months before slowly succumbing to decay. Weraroa novae-zelandiae was first described in detail by Cunningham in 1924 (as Secotium novae-zelandiae). In 1958, Singer made the connection between Weraroa novae-zelandiae and the bluing Psilocybes based on similar spore types and blue staining. He further speculated that Weraroa was the probable ancestor of the Strophariaceae (the family containing the genera Hypholoma, Psilocybe and Stropharia). Singer didn't mention any hallucinogenic properties and no one will for almost 50 more years.
    In 2005 Internet postings about the recreational use of Weraroa novae-zelandiae for its hallucinogenic effects were noticed by New Zealand mycologist Peter Johnston. The postings prompted molecular work (currently unpublished) by secotioid expert Ross Beever which reveals that Weraroa novae-zelandiae is very closely related to Psilocybe subaeruginosa, which appears to be synonymous with Psilocybe cyanescens. Cultivation experiments also support this close affinity with Psilocybe cyanescens and other temperate wood-inhabiting Psilocybes. Weraroa novae-zelandiae now appears to be only distantly related to other species of Weraroa such as Weraroa erythrocephala and Weraroa virescens.

    source - www.sporeworks.com

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    Psilocybe wrightii

    Psilocybe wrightii Guzmán



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 25-65 mm diam., subconvex to subumbonate, smooth to substriate at the margin, some rimose in old specimens, viscid to subviscid, hygrophanous, brown or reddish brown to brownish yellow, some straw-colored.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Subadnate or sinuate, yellowish violaceous to brownish violaceous or chocolate brown, somewhat mottled; edges whitish to concolorous.
    • Stem/Stipe: 80-95 x 5-9 mm, cylindrical, equal or slightly subbulbous, hollow, whitish to yellowish, finally brown reddish to blackish; staining blue when touched or injured; covered by floccose white fibrils toward the base.
    • Context: White and fleshy in the pileus, yellowish and subgelatinous to subcartilaginous in the stipe; staining blue when cut.
    • Odor: Farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (6-) 6.6-7.7 (-8.5) x 5.5-6.6 (-7.1) x 3.5-5.5 µm, subrhomboid, some obscurely angular in face view, but broadly elliptic or subelliptic in side view, smooth, yellowish brown thick walled, with broad flattened germ pore.
    • Basidia: 20-30 x 6-8 µm, four spored, vesiculose-pyriform, with a slight constriction in the middle.
    • Pleurocistidia: 15-22 x 5.-6.6 µm, hyaline, not abundant, vesiculose-fusoid, attenuate above and with a rounded nucro or sublageniform, neck 3.3-4 µm across.
    • Cheilocystidia: 13-22 x 4.5-6 µm, hyaline, ventricose-rostrate, with necks 2-2.5 µm, forming a sterile band along the gill edge.
    • Subhymenium: Yellowish with irregular brownish yellow pigment incrustations.
    • Trama: Hyaline to yellowish, parallel, colored by brownish yellow pigmented irregularly incrusted hyphae which often resemble collapsed chrysocystidia.
    • Epicutis: Formed by subgelatinized parallel hyphae, which are elongated to subglobose, hyaline to brownish.
    • Hypodermium: Yellowish or hyaline, with some latiferous hyphae, hyaline or brownish, 5-7 µm broad. Clamp connections present.

    Habitat: Gregarious on grassy soil outside of the subtropical forest at 900 m elevation.

    Studied material: ARGENTINA, road Tucumán to Tafi del Valle, 3 km W of Station Aforos, Febr. 18, 1971, Guzmán 8683 (holotype BAFC; isotype ENCB).

    Discussion: Psilocybe wrightii is close to Psilocybe caerulescens Murr. but the pleurocystidia and the pigmented trama separate it from the latter as well as the thin floccose stipe. The report of Psilocybe caerulescens by Singer and Digilio (1951) from the Rio de los Sosas, which is close to Aforo Station, it is possible a record of Psilocybe wrightii (no material of that species was available to the author in LIL and in BAFC). The species here described, is certainly hallucinogenic because of its bluing, and its taste and flavor. It is named after Dr. J.E. Wright, who helped the author during his collecting trip to Argentina in 1971.

    source - www.mycotaxon.com [7 (2): 251-252]

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    Psilocybe yungensis

    Psilocybe yungensis Singer & A.H.Sm. (1958)


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe yungensis var. diconica A.H.Smith (1958)
    Psilocybe acutissima Heim (1959)
    Psilocybe chiapanensis Guzmán (1995)
    Psilocybe isauri Singer (1959)
    Psilocybe subyungensis Guzmán (1978)

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: (0.5) 1-2 (2.5) cm, conic to campanulate at maturity, often adorned with a sharp umbo. Surface smooth, viscid, and translucent-striate most of the way to the disc when moist, pellicle not separable. Rusty brown to orangish brown to dark reddish brown, hygrophanous, fading in drying to dull yellowish brown or dingy straw colored. Bruising bluish where injured, and then blackish in drying.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment adnate to adnexed, close to crowded, dull gray at first, soon purplish brown with spore maturity. Edges pale to nearly concolorous with gill surface.
    • Stem/Stipe: (25) 30-50 (60) mm long by 1.5-2.5 (3) mm thick, equal to enlarging towards the base. Surface covered with a sheath of dense whitish fibrils, pale brownish above and reddish brown to reddish brown-black near the base. Flesh bruising bluish, hollow, and fairly brittle. Partial veil cortinate, soon disappearing with maturity, leaving whitish fibrils along the cap margin and scant remnants on the upper regions of the stem.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Dark purplish brown in deposit, rhomboid to subrhomboid to subellipsoid, (4.4) 5-6 (7) by 4-6 µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 14-25 by 4.4-10.5 µm, ventricose below and mucronate at the apex.
    • Cheilocystidia: 14-33 by 4.4-7.7 µm, variable, ventricose to clavate to strangulated.

    Habitat: Most frequently found in clusters or gregariously on rotting wood, sometimes at the bases of stumps, in coffee plantations or subtropical forests at 1000-2000 meters. Reported from Colombia and Ecuador, and extending north to Mexico. In June and July. Also reported from Bolivia in January. Probably more widely distributed than presently known.

    Comment: Moderately active; analyses not available. This mushroom is distinct for its penchant for growing in great numbers on decomposing stumps or wood debris, its orangish color, and that the caps remain conic at maturity. I find the common name especially revealing. Few species resemble Psilocybe yungensis. See also Psilocybe aztecorum.

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum

    Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum Guzmán, T. J. Baroni & Lodge



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 13-33 mm diam, conic or campanulate, umbonate, papillate, smooth, Burnt Umber or Raw Umber or dark brownish-red, hygrophanous, drying to Tawny, with irregular blue and reddish-brown staining or with reddish fuscous hues, margin not striate or translucent-striate.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed, light brown to dark reddish-brown or Dark Violaceous Brown, edges even or serrate, concolorous or whitish.
    • Stem/Stipe: 15-35 x 1.5-3 mm, equal or with a subbulbous base, smooth or pruinose, whitish to light brown or dark reddish brown, with irregular dark blue or dark reddish stains, hollow, base inserted.
    • Context: Whitish in pileus, brownish in stipe, caerulescent in all parts.
    • Odor: And taste fungoid or radish-like, or somewhat farinaceous.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5-) 6-7 (-9) x (3-) 4-4.5 (-5) x 3-3.5 µm (Q = 1.63), subellipsoid, both in face and side view, thin-walled, up to 0.4 µm thick, yellowish-brown, with a broad germ pore.
    • Basidia: 16-27 x 5-6.5 µm, 2- or 4-sterigmate, hyaline, ventricose, frequently with a median constriction, sterigmata 0.8-1.6 µm long.
    • Pleurocistidia: (11-) 13-20 (-22) x (3-) 4-5 (-6) µm, hyaline, ventricose or subventricose, with a short or long flexuous neck.
    • Cheilocystidia: (14-) 16-40 (-64) x (4-) 5-7 (-10) µm, hyaline, strongly versiform, subventricose or subcylindric, irregularly lobed, apex broad or acute, short or long.
    • Subhymenium: Subcellular, with hyaline elements, 2.5-8 µm wide, thin-walled, with encrusted yellowish brown pigment.
    • Trama: Hymenophoral trama regular, with cylindric or inflated, hyaline hyphae, 2-24 µm wide, with encrusted yellowish-brown pigment.
    • Epicutis: A subgelatinous layer about 50 µm thick, composed of hyaline to yellowish, thin-walled, repent cylindrical hyphae, 1.5-5.5 µm wide.
    • Hypodermium: With hyaline, slightly inflated hyphae, 3-16 µm wide, strongly encrusted with a sordid yellowish pigment Context with hyaline, cylindric or inflated hyphae, 2.5-16 µm wide. Clamp connections common.

    Habitat: Gregarious on bare or mossy soil, in tropical forests. Known only from Puerto Rico.

    Studied material: PUERTO RICO, Mun. Río Grande, Luquillo Mountains, La Mina Recreation Area, Caimitillo Trail, 11 Jun 1997, coll. Baroni, ledger Nieves-Rivera PR-797 (PR-4401, NY); 23 May 2000, Cantrell & Salgado (holotype PR-6167, CFMR, isotype, XAL); Baño de Oro Trail, 7 Oct 2000, Lodge & Pérez (PR-6269, UPRRP, CFMR and XAL).

    Discussion: Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum belong to section Zapotecorum because of the caerulescent nature of fresh basidiomata and thin-walled subellipsoid spores. Psilocybe zapotecorum Heim emend Guzmán (Guzmán 1983) differs most noticeably from Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum because of differences in the size and form of the pleurocystidia, which are longer and broader (20-38 x 5.5-14 µm) and of different morphologies (ventricose, fusoid-clavate, submucronate or pyriform). The form of the cheilocystidia in Psilocybe zapotecorum is also quite different (ventricose, fusoid-pyriform, ventricose-rostrate or lageniform) (Guzmán 1983).
    Other taxa that should be compared with Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum are Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata Guzmán and Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán. These species differ from Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum in the size of the cheilocystidia, (10-) 13-24 x (2.5-) 5-6.5 (-8) µm and 13.5-29 x 6-17 µm, respectively. Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán has two types of pleurocystidia (Guzmán 2000) and Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán emend Guzmán has broader pleurocystidia, (6-) 7-10 (-12) µm (Guzmán et al 1999, Guzmán 2000). Psilocybe halioconiae Guzmán, Saldarriaga, Pineda, García & Velázquez from Colombia (Guzmán et al 1994) differs in the cheilocystidia, which are only up to 24 µm long and rarely sublageniform, ventricose-fusoid to submoniliform.

    source - www.mycologia.org [95 (6): 1175-1176]

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    Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea

    Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea Guzmán, Ramírez-Guillén & T. J. Baroni



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 5-20 mm diam, convex to umbonate or campanulate-mammillate, smooth, dry, margin translucent-striate, some undulating when mature, surface dull Burn Umber to Raw Umber, with a Chestnut umbo, hygrophanous, drying to Rufous, Tawny or Clay, in dry specimens pale or dark cinnamon brown, with a darker umbo.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed to slightly free, light brown or Clay, edge even, concolorous, in dry specimens the lamellae are Dark Violaceous Brown with whitish edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 15-65 x 1.5-7 mm, equal to flared or tapered at base, Clay, light brown or dull Raw Umber, covered by whitish floccose scales, sooth or fibrillose, staining blue when handled, in dry specimens becoming reddish-brown, with blackish or dark reddish-brown spots.
    • Odor: Of radish. Taste fungoid.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: (5-) 5.5-6.5 (-7) x 3.5-4 x 3-3.5 µm (Q = 1.60), subellipsoid, both in face and side view, thin-walled, yellowish-brown, with a narrow germ pore.
    • Basidia: (13-) 14.5-17.5 x 5-5.5 µm, 4-sterigmate, hyaline, ventricose, with a median constriction.
    • Pleurocistidia: (11-) 12-16 (-17.5) x (3.5-) 4-5.5 µm, uncommon, hyaline, subventricose or subfusoid, with a short or long narrow neck.
    • Cheilocystidia: (12-) 14-36 (-40) x (4-) 5-7.5 (-9) µm, hyaline, subventricose or sublageniform, with an acute apex or a short or long neck, frequently irregularly branched, or some irregularly globose.
    • Subhymenium: Subcellular, with elements 2.5-7 µm wide, thin-walled, with encrusting pale brownish pigment.
    • Trama: Hymenophoral trama regular, hyaline to yellowish, cylindrical or ore frequently subglobose hyphae, 2-20 µm diam, thin- to thick-walled, walls up to 1.5 µm thick.
    • Epicutis: Poorly developed, with a subgelatinized layer of hyaline to yellowish, repent cylindrical hyphae, 1.5-4 µm wide.
    • Hypodermium: With subglobose, hyaline elements 2.5-18 (-20) µm, diam. thin-walled, with a pale brown encrusting pigment. Context with cylindric to inflated elements 2-20 µm wide hyaline to pale yellowish. Clamp connections common.

    Habitat: MARTINIQUE, Lorrain River, 100 m altitude, 1 Jun 1975, Fiard 318 (holotype K(M) 84366, as Psilocybe yungensis by Pegler).

    Discussion: Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea belongs to section Zapotecorum because of the subellipsoid, thin-walled spores and bluing stipe tissues of the basidiomata. This collection originally was studied and considered by Peglera (1983) as Psilocybe yungensis Singer & A.H. Smith. However Psilocybe yungensis has distinctly rhomboid or subrhomboid, thick-walled basidiospores and belongs in section Cordisporae.
    Psilocybe zapotecocaribea is somewhat similar to Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum but differs by the cheilocystidia that are not branched and rarely lageniform in Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum. Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea also has white floccose scales covering the stipe, which are lacking in Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum.
    Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea also should be compared to Psilocybe ramulosum (Guzmán & Gononi) Guzmán. Psilocybe ramulosum differs from Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea in highly branched cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia that are longer than found in Psilocybe zapotecaribaea (15-35 (-45) µm long; Guzmán 1995).

    source - www.mycologia.org [95 (6): 1176-1178]

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    Psilocybe zapotecorum

    Psilocybe zapotecorum Heim emend Guzmán


    synonyms:
    Psilocybe aggericola Singer & A.H. Sm.
    Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán
    Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán
    Psilocybe chaconii Guzmán, M. Torres & Ram.-Guill.
    Psilocybe bolivarii Guzmán, Ciencia (Méx.)
    Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosum
    Psilocybe sanctorum
    Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán
    Psilocybe candidipes Singer & A.H. Sm.
    Psilocybe aggericola var. alvaradoi
    Psilocybe zapotecorum f. elongata
    Psilocybe pseudozapotecorum Guzmán
    Psilocybe microcystidiata Guzmán & Bononi

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1-3 by 7 (11) cm, highly variable in form, conic to convex to subumbonate, and sometimes papillate and convoluted in age. Surface smooth, translucent-striate near the margin when moist. Reddish brown to organic brown, hygrophanous, fading to beige, orangish rose to straw in drying, quickly bruising blue to green to blackish where injured or in age.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attachment sinuate or adnate, pale brown to violet brown to violet purple, with edges concolorous with gill face, or slightly paler.
    • Stem/Stipe: (40) 100-200 mm long by (3) 5-10 (12) mm thick, equal to slightly expanded at the base, sometimes with a pseudorhiza, at times flexuous or irregular in thickness. White to grayish to variably reddish brown or vinaceous, bluing when touched or injured, with blackish violet tones. Surface floccose above and strongly scabrous-strigose near the base.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: Purplish in deposit, violet brown in deposit, oblong-ellipsoid, (5.5) 6.6-7 (8.8) by 3.8-4.4 (5.5) µm.
    • Basidia: 4-spored.
    • Pleurocistidia: 20-38 by 5.5-14 µm, variable in form, fusoid-clavate, ventricose to submucronate, sometimes with irregularly divided apices.
    • Cheilocystidia: 13-27 by 3.5-6 µm, ventricose to fusoid, pyriform to lageniform, with an extended neck 1.5-2.2 µm.

    Habitat: Cespitose to gregarious, rarely scattered, in swampy or muddy soils, in humus rich with leaves and wood debrs, in marshy deciduous forests, and in coffee plantations. Frequently found on the faces of ravines with exposed soils. Found in southern Mexico (600-1800 meters) and subtropical South America. (Collected in Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Argentina.) Guzmán (1983) reported that this mushroom is sometimes found inside the mud houses of native peoples (Zapotecs), a curious if not spiritually prophetic phenomenon.

    Comment: A potent and strongly bluing mushroom Psilocybe zapotecorum is comparatively large and can sometimes be covered with sand as it forces its way up through soils. From Brazilian specimens, Stijve and de Meijer (1993) found up to 0.30% psilocybin and 1% psilocin, which probably accounts for the strong bluing reaction. Not surprisingly, Heim and Hofmann (1958) found only 0.05% psilocybin and no psilocin in two-year-old specimens. One of the most curious species in the genus Psilocybe, this mushroom has a typically asymmetrical cap that is often convoluted in form. This mushroom is held in high esteem by native Mazatecs and Zapotecs. These two species have been confused frequently. The photographs labeled as Psilocybe caerulescens by Ott and Bigwood (1978) and as Psilocybe caerulescens-zapotecorum complex by Stamets (1978) are, in fact, Psilocybe zapotecorum. Heim and Callieux (1959) successfully fruited this species in Erlenmeyer flasks in sterilized, mixed compost after forty days of incubation (24-26°C).

    source - Paul Stamets "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World"

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    Panaeolus affinis

    Panaeolus affinis (E. Horak) Ew.Gerhardt


    synonyms:
    Copelandia affinis E. Horak

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: Up to 25 mm wide. Hemispherical when young, then convex or rounded-humped. Gray brown. Strongly hygrophanous, drying pale, often with olive tone against the grooved edge. Apex wrinkled. Flesh whitish to pale gray-brown, with blue-green staining (type-study).
    • Gills/Lamellae: Attached, gray to pale brown, with a distinct olive tone, pied, mottled, and with a white/sterile gill edge.
    • Stem/Stipe: Stipe approximately 85 x 3 mm, slender, cylindrical, whitish/pale gray brown, staining blue-green when injured, base white-tomentose, dry, pruinose at the top, fibrillose toward base, hollow, brittle/fragile.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 9-11.5 (13) x 7-8.5 x 5-5.5, smooth, opaque, clearly prolate, flattened in face-view, always longer than wide, germ pore even/flush.
    • Basidia: Basidia mostly 4-spored, rarely 2-spored. Approximately 20-25 x 8-10 µm. Sulphidia absent.
    • Pleurocistidia: Metuloids with yellow brown cell walls. Similar to the cyanescens-type, approximately 40-60 x 13 - 20 around, frequently apically encrusted with crystals.
    • Cheilocystidia: Cheilocystidia ventricose to bottle-shaped, tip often capitate-subcapitate, hyaline, approx 20-35 µm long.

    Habitat: On soil between leaf litter. Occasionally rotten wood.

    Studied material: Holotype from New Guinea, Papua, Bulolo, (Agathis Res, Horak, 2.2.1972, p.p.maj. Copelandia affinis (ZT 72/121)). As yet, this species is known only from New Guinea (Asia). Only two collections were examined (the type and one other) as part of Gerhardt's Type Study.

    Discussion: This species is distinguished from Panaeolus cyanescens mainly by the smaller spores. It should also be mentioned that the soil or decomposing wood substrates would make this Panaeolus very unique. Panaeolus lentisporus, is very similar, but its spores are even more flattened, also has even broader spores with an extremely prominent protruding germ pore.

    Comment: The type material collected was abundant and in good condition. In Gerhardt's research he found that a few specimens differed significantly in its spore for. He separated these into a collection that he labeled as No. 72/121-a, distinguished from the remaining material. From No. 72/121-a, he described Panaeolus lentisporus. The majority of the collection was in agreement with the characteristics given in the original description. Horak's dimensions for the spores were 9-10 x 7.5-9 x 5-6.5 µm (which is shorter). This may be because Horak had not measured spores that were produced from 2-spored basidia. Also, two-sterigmate basidia were not mentioned in Horak's description.

    source - www.mushroomobserver.org

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    Panaeolus africanus

    Panaeolus africanus Ola'h



    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.5-2 cm broad. Obtusely conic, hemispherical and rarely broad in age. Cap becomes pitted and wrinkle with age cracking to fornm scales. Viscid when moist, especially in young speimens. Grayish creamy white and grey-brown in age. Incuved margin in young specimens, often irregular and non-translucent. Flesh is greyish-white.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnate to adnexed, and sometimes sinuate, rarely subdecurrent and widely spaced., greyish at first and then soon becoming black to blackish and mottled as spores mature.
    • Stem/Stipe: 30-50 mm by 4-6 mm thick. Equal and firm as well as pruinose towards the apex. White with pinkish tones, generally lighter than the cap and no veil remnants present.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 11.5-14.5 x 7.9-10 µm. Lemon shaped and often variable. Sporeprint black in deposit.

    Habitat: Found on hippopotamus and elephant dung.

    Distribution: Central Africa to the Southern Regions of the Sudan.

    Season: In the spring or during the rainy seasons.

    Dosage: According to French-Canadian mycologist G-M. Ola'h of the Universite Laval in Quebec, Canada reported that this species is weakly active.

    Comment: This species macroscopically resembles the non-psychoactive species, Panaeolus antillarum. Accodring to Paul Stamets, he found one small collection of this species at the Seattle, Washington Zoo in elephant dung.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Panaeolus antillarum

    Panaeolus antillarum (Fr.) Dennis


    synonyms:
    Agaricus antillarum
    Agaricus solidipes
    Panaeolus phalaenarum
    Panaeolus sepulchralis
    Psilocybe antillarum


    nonactive

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 4-10 cm broad. Hemispherical to broadly convex, whitish at first becoming silvery whitish-grayish with age, sometimes appearing slightly yellowish, a bit rare for yellow. Surface very smooth to rimose-scaly. Flesh is very thick and whitish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Adnexed to adnate, close and broad and slightly swollen in the center. Whitish to grayish at first and then becoming dark to mottled black. Edges of gills are whitish-gray.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-200 mm long by 5-15 mm thick. Equal to slightly enlarged and curved at the base and solid but sometimes is twisted. Very whitish in color and the surface is smooth and striate towards the base.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 18-20 x 11-12,5 µm, and are ellipsoid in shape. Sporeprint black in deposit.

    Habitat: Gregarious to subcespitose in manure of cattle, gaur, water buffalo, sheep and sometimes horses. And many other four-legged ruminants.

    Distribution: Widely distributed with a cosmopolitan distribution.

    Season: In the spring and fall and during the rainy seasons. The author has found this species to be common in Thailand and Cambodia as well as Florida and other regions of the USA and Europe

    Dosage: This species is not psychoactive.

    Comment: In the late 1940s this species gained a reputation in Australia as the "Hysteria Fungus" allegedly causing accidental hallucinogenic inebriations in foragers in some parts of that country. Later it was determined that the actual causative mushrooms were Copelandia cyanescens which is macroscopically similar in appearance to Panaeolus antillarum. This species is edible but it's bitter rancid taste is not worth eating.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Panaeolus bisporus

    Panaeolus bisporus (Malencon and Bertault) Singer and Weeks


    synonyms:
    Panaeolus bispora
    Copelandia bisporus
    Copelandia bispora

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 15-28 mm, semiglobate, campanulate to convex, hardly expanding, margin often torn and pedaled, smooth not viscid, and slightly wrinkled and pitted with age. Dark grey-brown drying whitish.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Ventricose-adnate, 5 mm broad, crowded and grey to olivaceous black with distinct white edges.
    • Stem/Stipe: 40-65 mm x 2-3 mm, cylindrical, fistulose and punctate-pruinose from apex to 1/3 towards base, downwards slightly fibrillose, reddish-brown and greyish. bluish at base.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 12-14 x 8-10 x 6-7,5 µm. Elliptical. Sporeprint black with white edges.

    Habitat: Preferably the dung of buffalo and cattle, sometimes in manured soil, but rare. Originally only know of from Morocco, Africa and then from Hawaii, a recent discovery of this mushroom in abundance appeared in a lawn of a Churchyard of Belp near Bern, Switzerland. Additionally, it has also once reported from Spain.

    Distribution: North Africa and Hawaii, Spain and Switzerland.

    Season: During and after rainy periods.

    Dosage: 4 to 7 to 10 fresh mushrooms, 1-2 dried grams.

    Comment: Common on Oahu at Kualoa Ranch and at pastures on Oahu's North Shore.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

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    Panaeolus cambodginiensis

    Panaeolus cambodginiensis Ola'h & R.Heim


    synonyms:
    Copelandia cambodginiensis (Ola'h & R.Heim) Singer & R.A.Weeks

    Macroscopic feat.:
    • Cap/Pileus: 1.2-2.5 cm broad. Conic-convex at first soon hemispherical and expanding to broadly convex and then nearly plane. Surface smooth and moist to viscid and often becoming cracked or pitted and wrinkled with age.Cap hygrophanous from a copper-golden brown to a pallid straw color in drying.
    • Gills/Lamellae: Ascending, incinate. Pallid at first becoming grayish-black and mottled.
    • Stem/Stipe: 55-95 mm long by 3.5-5 mm thick, swelling towards the base whitish to cream color brown at the base and with extreme bluing upon handling.

    Microscopic feat.:
    • Basidio/Spores: 10.5-12 x 6.5-9 µm. Lemon shaped and smooth. Sporeprint blackish-brown in deposit.

    Habitat: Scattered to gregarious on dung of buffalo and cattle.

    Distribution: Originally described from Cambodia. This species is also found in Peru, Mexico, and Hawaii.

    Season: During and after heavy rains at different times of the year depending on the location of the fruiting bodies.

    Dosage: 7 to 10 fresh mushrooms and from 1-2 grams dried.

    Comment: Stephen Pollock successfully cultivated this species back in the late 1970's.

    source - www.mushroomjohn.org

    Pictures at www.mushroomobserver.org

    [